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臺南市北區三山國王三山國王(陳美華攝)
 
三山國王是台灣傳佈甚廣的神祗之一,發源於廣東省潮州府揭陽縣。三山之名得自揭陽縣的巾山、明山與獨山等三座山的合稱。根據元方志〈劉希孟潮州路明貺三山國王記〉,三山國王原是此地的三位山神,在隋某年二月下旬於巾山出現。三位神人自稱受命於天,彼此乃是兄弟,後來化靈於三山之間的一座奇峰-玉峰。因此,玉峰興建有一座供奉祂們的,受民眾膜拜。據說當地有位陳姓鄉民也為其所化,成為隨從,並配祀中。當地民眾每遇有水旱災或疾疫,禱之三山國王必定靈應。韓愈治理潮州時,也曾為因當地豪雨成災,於是求禱於三山國王。五代和宋交替之間,三山國王顯靈協助趙匡胤擊敗對手劉鋹有功,皇帝於是下詔封明山神為「清化威德報國王」,巾山神為「助政明肅寧國王」,獨山神為「惠感(威?)弘應豐國王」,並賜以「明貺」的匾額。傳說宋末帝昺時,三山國王也助他逃離叛軍追殺。這些傳說顯示三山國王與宋皇室似乎關係特別密切,或許宋才是三山國王發展過程中的關鍵時。三山國王的故事後來幾經變易,原有的山神色彩徹底轉變成人格神,有謂大國王姓連名傑字化清,二國王姓趙名軒字助政,三國王姓喬名俊字惠威,原是隋助楊堅開國的大將軍,因為無心仕途,退隱山林,到了宋才再度顯靈,為宋皇室助陣,保祐當地居民,受世人崇奉。
        由於三山國山的信仰在台灣分佈甚廣,初研究又和粵籍客家族群有關,相關研究一度視三山國王是客家族群特有的神祇。然而,最新的研究分析中國大陸或臺灣的現況,三山國王並非客家族群獨有,而是發源於潮州地方的民間信仰。三山國王在台灣的分佈相當廣,幾乎遍及每個縣市,光是宜蘭地區粗估即有二十六座。至於其它地區,較古老的有屏東九如的三山國王、高雄縣橋頭的義山宮、高雄市楠梓和鹽埕的三山國王、彰化員林的廣安宮和臺南市的三山國王等。

 

臺南市北區三山國王三山國王(陳美華攝)
 

關鍵詞:三山國王、巾山、明山、獨山、客家
 
考書目:
(元)劉希孟。〈潮州路明貺三山國王記〉。收入《永樂大典》〈十三蕭‧潮字‧潮州府〉5345/18a-19b。
(明)盛端明。〈三山明貺記〉。收入《中國方志叢書》華南12號,臺北:成文出版社。
邱彥貴。2003。〈臺灣客屬三山國王信仰淵源新論〉。收入張珣、江燦騰合編。《臺灣本土宗教研究的新視野和新思維》:175-225。臺北:南天書局。
貝聞喜。2007。《潮汕三山國王崇拜》。廣州:廣東人民出版社。
陳春聲。1996。〈三山國王信仰與臺灣移民社會〉,《中研院民族所集刊》,80:61-114。


        Sanshan guowang (三山國王), Lord of the three mountains, is an important god set of popular religion in Taiwan. It is estimated that there are about 170 temples dedicated to Sanshan guowang, in Taiwan, 1996. Lord of the three mountains is a collection of three mountain gods who originated from Chao zhou (潮州), Guang-dong privince (廣東省). The three mountains are Mountain Jin (巾山), Mountain Ming (明山), and Mountain Du (獨山). San-shan is their collective name. The primary record of Lord of the three mountains is a local history in Yuan dynasty. It is said that there are three divine human descended to a mountain peak, Yu feng (玉峰), around the three mountains. They claimed themselves as the gods of the three mountains and they were sibling. A villager was abducted by them and became their tendance. As a result, Lord of the three mountains and the villager were all worshiped by the other villagers around the three mountains and a temple were built on the foot of Yu feng.
It is credited that Lord of the three mountains is efficacious. When there is a drought, flood, or an epidemic disease, the villagers will go to the temple praying for blessing. In Tang dynasty (唐), when the famous Confucian scholar Han Yu (韓愈) was the staff of Chao zhou, there was a flood. He also went to the temple to pray Lord of the three mountains. In Song dynasty, Lord of the three mountains assisted both the first and the last Song Emperors. Lord of the three mountains helped the first emperor Zhao Kuang-yin (趙匡胤) defeated his major enemy, Liu Chang (劉鋹). After the war, Zhao Kuang-yin bestowed the title of duke to Lord of the three mountains. The god of Mt. Ming was named Qing-hua Wei-de bao guo wang (清化威德報國王). The god of Mt. Jin was named Zhu-zheng Ming-su Ning guo wang (助政明肅寧國王). The god of Mt. Du was named Hui-gan Hong-ying Feng guo wang (惠感弘應豐國王).  At the end of Song dynasty, when the last emperor Di Bing (帝昺)was fleeing, Lord of the three mountains was protecting him from the pursuing of insurgents. Above Lord of the three mountains’ stories in Song dynasties reveals that Lord of the three mountains’ flourishing seems in relation of the royal house of Song emperor.
Scholars in Taiwan thought that Lord of the three mountains is the god in connection with the Hakka Chinese, Chinese who speak the Hakka language at first. Recently, new evidence reveal that Lord of the three mountains is the god who originated from Chao zhou only but not dedicated to Hakka people. There is almost the temple of Lord of the three mountains everywhere in Taiwan. Only in Yi-lan county (宜蘭), it was estimated about 26 temples dedicated to Lord of the three mountains.
 
Keywords: Lord of the three mountains, Mountain Jin, Mountain Ming, Mountain Du, Hakka Chinese
 
References:
(元)劉希孟。〈潮州路明貺三山國王記〉。收入《永樂大典》〈十三蕭‧潮字‧潮州府〉5345/18a-19b。
(明)盛端明。〈三山明貺記〉。收入《中國方志叢書》華南12號,臺北:成文出版社。
邱彥貴。2003。〈臺灣客屬三山國王信仰淵源新論〉。收入張珣、江燦騰合編。《臺灣本土宗教研究的新視野和新思維》:175-225。臺北:南天書局。
貝聞喜。2007。《潮汕三山國王崇拜》。廣州:廣東人民出版社。
陳春聲。1996。〈三山國王信仰與臺灣移民社會〉,《中研院民族所集刊》,80:61-114。
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