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新北市新店區天聖觀太上混元道府三奶夫人(陳美華攝)

三奶夫人為臨水夫人陳靖姑、李三娘、林紗娘三人的合稱,有時候也專指臨水夫人陳靖姑。陳靖姑又稱大奶或陳奶夫人,李三娘又稱李三奶或李夫人,林紗娘又稱林九娘或林夫人。陳靖姑即臨水夫人,是唐大曆二年(767年)出生,出身巫覡家庭,天賦異稟能預知未來又精通法術,其詳細生平可見「聖天聖母」詞條。相較於臨水夫人的故事,關於李三娘、林九娘的故事較少。
根據《三教搜神大全》,陳靖姑和李三娘、林九娘是同門,陳靖姑因為兄長陳海青除妖不成,反受其制。於是和李三娘、林九娘共同投入許真君門下學法。許真君即晉許遜(239年-374年)。在尋訪許真君的過程中,他們經過惡水、毒龍、猛虎等難關,方才找到閭山,訪得許真君。閭山是福建等地各重要法派傳說中的聖山,但是它詳細的位置無人能夠確知,是座神秘的聖山。陳靖姑和李三娘、林九娘從許真君處習得雷法和相關法術。學成之後即下以「驅雷破罡法」打破蛇洞,救出陳海青。他們後來又斬妖伏魔,以法術濟助百,成為受人崇敬的三奶夫人。據說三奶夫人還協助閩王除蛇妖,得到閩王封賞三十六宮女,他們也成為翼助三奶夫人護產的重要陪嗣神。
三奶夫人所代表的民間法派特流傳於福建、江西、台灣等地。其法術儀式深受道教佛教的密宗影響,結合民間的巫覡傳統而自成一格,也和正一、神霄、清微、天心正法、淨明忠孝道等自宋明以來開展的各種道教頗為接近。閭山法派下之三奶派在台灣以紅頭巾纏頭,故又稱為紅頭法師或紅頭師公。除了法術傳統外,三奶夫人多和臨水夫人同祀,以臨水夫人陳靖姑為主,於民間宗教則和求子、安胎,還有保護兒童有關。三奶夫人的故事也散見於以陳靖姑為主角的民間戲曲、小説之中。
 
關鍵詞:三奶夫人、陳靖姑、閭山、許真君、紅頭師公
 
考書目
  1. Berthier, Brigitte. (2008) The Lady of Linshu: A Chinese female cult. California : Stanford University Press.
  2. 李秀娥,1997,〈鹿港夫人媽成神的傳說與類型〉,《思與言》,35(2):187-234。
  3. 康詩瑀,2007,〈台灣臨水夫人信仰之研究 ─以白河臨水宮、台南臨水夫人媽為例〉(中壢:國立中央大學歷史所論士論文)。
  4. 陳芳伶,2003,〈陳靖姑信仰的內容、教派及儀式探討〉(台南:國立台南大學鄉土文化研究所碩士論文)。
  5. 魏永竹,1991,〈臨水夫人崇祀在台灣〉,《台灣文獻》,42(1):209-234。

Sannai furen (三奶夫人), the Three ladies, designate one goddess or three goddesses. In case of one goddess, it is Chen Jinggu (陳靖姑), the Lady of Linshui (臨水夫人). In another case, they are Chen Jinggu (陳靖姑),  Lin Sha-niang (林紗娘) , and Li San-niang (李三娘). As the Lady of Linshui, Chen Jinggu is renown of protecting pregnant women and children. However the other two ladies’ story is few. According to very few records, Chen Jinggu, the Lady of Lin, and the Lady of Li were all disciples of Xu Xun (許遜, 239-374), a Daoist in Jin dynasty. Because Xu Xun was a Daoist figure in Jin dynasty, the Lady of Linshui was a shaman in Tang dynasy. Apparently, it is a mystical story not a history.Sannai Furen and Chen’s elder brother Chen Hai-qing (陳海青)are originally exorcists. Chen Hai-qing failed his mission in taming a viper demon and was captured by the viper demon. Then Chen Jinggu and Lin, Li, tried to locate Xu Xun to ask him for help. During this heroines like journey, they crossed a troubled river, fought with an evil dragon, and defeated a fierce tiger. Finally, they found Xu Xun lived in Mountain Lu, Lu shan (閭山) and became his disciples to advance their own exorcising skill. Lu-shan is the holly mountain to the exorcists in Fujian, Zhe jiang and other provinces around other southeast China. However, Lushan is a mystical mountain which located in where nobody knows exactly. AfterSannai Furen learned all the skill from Xu Xun, including Lei Fa (雷法). They started to trace the viper demon, find its cave and killed it. Chen Hai-qing was saved by them.Sannai Furen then became the famous demon buster. They even saved King Min (閩王) and his concubines from another viper demon. So King Min bestowed them with 36 maids. The 36 maids becameSannai Furen’s follower and squad.
In Chinese popular religion,Sannai Furen represented the legacy of Lushan Fapai (閭山法派). Lushan Fapai is a teaching or a school in popular religion which spreads around Fujian ,jiang xi , and Taiwan. Its rituals were influenced by Daoism and Tantra Buddhism and mixed with Wu (巫), an ancient tradition in Chinese popular religion. Under the school of Lushan Fapai, there is a subdivision called Sannai pai (三奶派). In Taiwan, the exorcists who belong to San-nai pai wear red turban on their head. They are often called hongtou fashi (紅頭法師), the exorcist with red hair. Besides,Sannai Furen’s temples are all the same as the Lady of Linshui. People worship to them for praying children’s and pregnant women’s secure life. San-nai pai’s stories are also popular in traditional drama.
 
Keywords: Sannai furen, Chen Jinggu, Xu Xun, Lushan
 
References:
  1. Berthier, Brigitte. (2008) The Lady of Linshu: A Chinese female cult. California : Stanford University Press.
  2. 李秀娥,1997,〈鹿港夫人媽成神的傳說與類型〉,《思與言》,35(2):187-234。
  3. 康詩瑀,2007,〈台灣臨水夫人信仰之研究 ─以白河臨水宮、台南臨水夫人媽為例〉(中壢:國立中央大學歷史所論士論文)。
  4. 陳芳伶,2003,〈陳靖姑信仰的內容、教派及儀式探討〉(台南:國立台南大學鄉土文化研究所碩士論文)。
魏永竹,1991,〈臨水夫人崇祀在台灣〉,《台灣文獻》,42(1):209-234。
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