:::
全國宗教資訊網
 宗教知識+
宗教知識家
三寶佛 (Sanbao fo)
::: 三寶佛 (Sanbao fo)
* 首頁 > 宗教知識+ > 宗教神祇 > 三寶佛 (Sanbao fo)
*
0分
分享圖示
分享
勘誤圖示
勘誤
 
新北市金山區法山三寶佛(法山基金會提供)

三寶在佛教中本來指佛、法、僧,也就是佛教的創教者釋迦牟尼,釋迦牟尼所傳的教義,還有佛陀世世代代的出家弟子。三寶佛是民間的俗稱,此處的三寶變成形容詞,指三位珍貴的佛,三寶佛所指的佛分別是中央「釋迦牟尼佛」;兩旁的「藥師佛」、「阿彌陀佛」。這三尊佛在佛教的宇宙觀裡有空間的對應關係,釋迦牟尼佛在吾人所處之世界,即娑婆世界,藥師佛在東方、阿彌陀佛在西方。除了以上的說法外,三寶佛有時也和佛教的三身佛、三世佛混淆。所謂的三身佛即法身佛毗盧遮那佛、報身佛盧舍那佛、化身佛釋迦牟尼佛。三世佛則是指過去、現在、未來的三世佛,他們分別是燃燈佛、釋迦牟尼佛、彌勒佛。
以上三寶佛所指諸佛的交集是釋迦牟尼佛,一般造像位置多在中央,他是娑婆世界的教主,詳細內容可考釋迦牟尼佛詞條。阿彌陀佛是極樂世界的教主,其塑像位置多在面對佛像時的右側,詳細內容可考阿彌陀佛、西方三聖詞條。藥師佛又作消災廷壽藥師佛,座於面對佛像時之左側。關於藥師佛主掌的世界,根據《佛說藥師如來本願經》卷1:「東方過此佛土十恒河沙等佛土之外,有世界名淨琉璃,彼土有佛,名藥師琉璃光如來」。藥師佛立有十二個誓願,其中包括他成佛時身體清淨明澈,宛若琉璃。且要濟助所有病苦、身體殘缺受損者,還有災障者免難消災。所以藥師佛有又有「消災延壽藥師佛」之稱。
自清代以降的佛寺或民間佛教宇內,殿內即普遍供奉有三寶佛。但佛經中並沒有以三寶佛同時指稱此三尊佛的說法。因此,以三寶佛同時指稱三尊佛的組合,應當是流行於大眾的宗教概念,其源頭可能和佛教舉行之各種儀式有關。由於佛教的節日、戒儀式,或是每日的固定儀式等,多需同時為生者、亡者進行儀式,為生者祈福消災的儀式以藥師佛為主,為亡者超度的儀式則以阿彌陀佛為主,兩者不能相混淆。因此佛教日常的佈置或儀式中,皆需設有消災、超度的相關布置,隨著這類儀式的定型化,促使佛教的殿宇將釋迦牟尼佛、藥師佛、阿彌陀佛共同安置的組合變為定制,陳設於殿宇中。最後成為一般大眾口中的三寶佛。
 
關鍵詞:三寶佛、釋迦牟尼佛、藥師佛、阿彌陀佛
 
 
考資料:
《佛說藥師如來本願經》
《佛門必備誦本》

Sanbao fo (三寶佛) are three Buddhas. They are Sakyamuni, Amitaba, and Bhaisajyaguru, the healing and medicine Buddha. Sometimes, people confused them with the three bodies of Budddha, the trikaya, a buddhist teaching about the nature and the reality of Buddha. Sanbao, the three treasures, orignially means Buddha, Sakaymuni, dharma, the teaching of Buddhism and sangha, Buddhist monks and nuns. Apparently, Sanbao fo is a term invented in Chinese popular religion. In the light of  Buddhism, the relation between these three Buddhas is based on the cosmology of mahayana Buddhism.  As we know, Sakyamuni is the Buddha in our era and on our earth. Both Amitaba and Bhaisajyaguru are the celestial Buddhas. They are in the "west" pure land (西方淨土) and the "east" pure land (東方淨土) individually. In other words, Sanbao fo corresponds to the spatial relationship between the three Buddhas’ land.
        In the arrangement of Sanbao fo’s statues, Sakyamuni’s statue is on the middle, Amitaba’s is on the right side and Bhaisajyaguru's is on the left side.
Since Sakyamuni and Amitaba are introduced elsewhere in this web site, only Bhaisajyaguru is illustrated here. Bhaisajyaguru is called Yaoshi fo (藥師佛) in Chinese, the medicine Buddha. According to Buddhist scriptures, Bhaisajyaguru's land called Jing Liu-li (淨琉璃), the pure lazurite, is far away from our world. His body is transparent like the lazurite. He vows to heal all living from the sickness and cure all the dsiabled.  Besides, he vows to save all the people from catastrophes and accidents. That is why Bhaisajyaguru is also called Xiaozai Yanshou Yaoshi fo (消災延壽藥師佛). Xiaozai means preventing accidents and Yanshou meands extending ones live.
Chinese Buddhists did not set Sakyamuni, Amitaba, and Bhaisajyaguru together as Sanbao fo until Qing dynasty (清). Sanbao fo is a term not found in Chinese Buddhist scriptures. On speculation, Sanbao fo is a popular term in Chinese religions. Maybe Sanbao fo is a term invented in relation of Buddhist ritual. In all kinds of Buddhist ritual, Buddhists not only worship to Bhaisajyaguru for the living to keep them from accident and sickness but also to Amitaba for the dead to ascent their soul to the pure land. Maybe when the ritual process was shaped, Chinese Buddhist temples set Sanbao fo together as a custom. Then the term Sanbao fo also cames out as we know today.
 
Keywords: Sanbao fo, Sakyamuni, Amitaba, Bhaisajyaguru
 
References:
《佛說藥師如來本願經》
《佛門必備誦本》
返回列表