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五顯大帝(Wuxian dadi)
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基隆市中正區天顯宮五顯大帝(陳美華攝)

五顯大帝又稱五行大帝、五顯靈光大帝、五靈官大帝、靈光大帝等等,一說是由宋五通神經歷代受封而為五顯,一說是神祗的轉世之變而成。有相關研究認為五顯的前身原是山魈、木客之類的非正祀神。根據道藏《搜神記》〈五聖始末〉裡記載,唐光啟年間在婺源地方,也就是今中國江西省上饒市所轄之縣,位於江西、浙江、安徽三省交界處,有五位神人表示自己受命於天,指示一位名叫王瑜的人立名「五通」。到了北宋徽宗大中年間,官方賜與號「靈順」,並賜以封號,經過歷代的昇遷,五顯由候爵而至王爵,到理宗年間已經是八字王號。後來五通就成為五顯,隨著五顯日益發展,有人認為五通並不是無端出現的神,而是古代的五行神,主宰天地的五行之氣。五位神祗的封號分別是「顯聰昭應靈格廣濟王」、「顯明昭列靈護廣祐王」、「顯正昭順靈衛廣惠王」、「顯直昭佑靈貺廣澤王」、「顯德昭利靈助廣成王」。
另有一說是五顯大帝非同時並列的五位神祗,而是一位神祗的轉變,它的第一世名叫妙吉祥,第二世名字是三眼靈光天王馬子貞,第三世三眼靈光天王靈耀,第四世名五顯華光大帝蕭顯德,佛教名華光天王佛,道教稱為五顯靈官馬元帥。根據《太上洞玄靈寶五顯觀華光本行妙經》,靈官大聖華光五大天帥,又叫靈觀大聖華光廣化天君,是為了度眾生,化為一身或五身,華光菩薩或金剛力士等等。他特殊的變化能力來自五星五炁的精華,產生五方的五種靈氣。《通天寶號》裡的靈觀大帝有三眼,著黃衣錦袍,腳踏火輪,手握金磚金鎗,隨侍有順風耳和千里眼,能驅逐邪煞如山魈、精魅、邪鬼等。
五顯在宋即非常興盛,是重要的地域神,當時婺源地方的五顯即相當知名,有著各類的記載。五顯大帝在台灣相關的宇,有以五帝為名,也有以五顯為名者,這是將五福大帝和五顯或五通神混淆並結合其傳說的結果。在五福大帝的發源地福州,其地的五帝所指者是五福大帝而非五顯,而其它地區的五顯並沒有五帝的稱呼。
臺灣各地也成立相關的聯誼組織,如中華五顯大帝宇發展協會、中華民國五顯慈恩淨土功德會等。農曆九月二十八日是五顯大帝的聖誔。
 
關鍵詞:五通、五顯、五顯大帝、婺源、木客
 
考書目
朱昌榮、程廣媛。2006.10。〈論五通神與五顯神〉。《新亞論叢》,8:57-70。
Von Glahn, Richard. (2004) The Sinister Way. California: University of California Press.

Wuxian dadi is also called Wutong (五通) who is a god originated from the boarder between Jiang xi (江西), Zhejiang (浙江) and Anhui (安徽) province. It is the place named Wuyuan (婺源) in Tang dynasty. Regarding to a record in the Daoist canon, the first time Wutong appeared was during Guangqi period(光啟, 885-888). The five deities claimed they were dispatched by the mighty god to here as the administration god. They ordered a man named Wang Yu (王瑜) to establish a temple named Wutong dedicated to them. When it was the reign of Song Huizong (宋徽宗), the Wutong temple was titled by official, named Lingshun (靈順). As Wutong’s official position got higher, their titles got longer. When it came to the reign of Song Lizong (宋理宗), there were eight character denoting Witong’s title. They became Wuxian. Their titles are Xiancong Zhaoying Lingge Guangjiwang (顯聰昭應靈格廣濟王), Xianming Zhaolie Linghu Guangyou wang (顯明昭列靈護廣祐王), Xianzheng Zhaoshun Lingwei Guanghuiwang (顯正昭順靈衛廣惠王), Xianzhi Zhaoyou Lingkuang Guangzewang (顯直昭佑靈貺廣澤王), and Xiande Zhaoli Lingzhu Guangchengwang (顯德昭利靈助廣成王) separately. Since Wuxian were recognized by official, people began to believe that Wuxian originated from very ancient. People thought that they represented the Five Elements (五行). Wuxian are the gods managing the five elements in the universe.
There is still another story about Wuxian. It is said that they are not five gods but one god has five avata at five phases separately. The first one was Miaojixiang (妙吉祥). The second was Sanyan Lingguang Tianwang Ma Zizhen (三眼靈光天王馬子貞). The third was Lingyao (三眼靈光天王靈耀). At The fourth generation, they became five gods descented in Wuyuan as above story in the first paragraph. Finally, the five gods became a Daoist-Buddhist mixture. His name was Huaguang Tianwang Fo (華光天王佛) in Buddhism and Wuxian Lingguan Mayuanshuai (五顯靈官馬元帥) in Daoism. It was said that after Wuxian took refuge in Buddhism and Daoism, they or he became more powerful in spirital.
Scholars thought that Wuxian or Wutong actually was a mountaion god originally. He was also called Muke (木客).
Wuxian was very popular in Song dynasty. In Taiwan, the temples dedicated to Wuxian are either titled with Wuxian or Wudi. There are some assoiciations established as the guild among different temples. Wuxian’s birthday is on September, twenty eighth in Chinese lunar calendar.
 
Key words:Wutong, Wuxian, Wuxian dadi, Wuyuan, Muke
 
Reference
朱昌榮、程廣媛。2006.10。〈論五通神與五顯神〉。《新亞論叢》,8:57-70。
Von Glahn, Richard. (2004) The Sinister Way. California: University of California Press.
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