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太乙真人(Taiyi Zhenren)
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臺北市文山區元太道堂太乙真人(陳美華攝)
 
太乙真人即「太乙救苦天尊」,又稱「太一救苦天尊」、「尋聲救苦天尊」或「十方救苦天尊」、「青玄上帝」等,在主要的道教經典裡,多作太一救苦天尊或太乙救苦天尊。太乙真人在《靈寶無上度人大法》等相關道教經典和儀軌中,乃是重要的救度神,舉凡度亡,上天堂、下地獄等,都需要借助於太乙救苦天尊方能達成。道教經典中關於太乙真人的形象又以《太上洞玄靈寶救苦妙經》、《太一救苦護身妙經》為要,在《太一救苦護身妙經》裡,太乙真人是元始天尊的分身,居住在「東方長樂世界」,有無窮盡的化身,隨著人們如何稱呼祂而化成形,即「物隨聲應」,他的居所隨信仰者而變,或住天宮、或在人間、也在地獄。他是各類神靈的領袖,也可能是道士,種種不同的身份是他尋聲救苦的表象。太乙真人的名字也會因地制宜而有所不同,「在天呼太一福神,在世呼為大慈仁者,在地獄呼為日耀帝君,在外道攝邪呼為獅子明王,在水府呼為洞淵帝君」。換言之,太乙救苦天尊可說是道教的觀世音菩薩。
另一方面,太乙真人也是道教中的地藏菩薩。根據唐的〈太一觀董真人殿碑銘〉,太乙真人主掌人死後入丹籍或下北酆。《太一救苦護身妙經》指出,若有人為了超度祖先、同學、夫妻等,則存思太一救苦天尊,並念誦其稱號,能令亡者生天,也能化解亡魂的恩怨牽累。
關於太乙真人的形象,在《太一救苦護身妙經》裡,太乙真人作童子形。根據杜光庭道教靈驗記,太乙真人腳踏蓮花,頭上有圓光圍繞,手中拿著楊枝和淨水,有九頭獅子隨從。宋《夷堅丙志,卷十》則以成人著官服的形象出現。民間流行的《封神榜》,祂是哪吒的老師,以法術令死去的哪吒從蓮花中復活,使哪吒納入姜子牙麾下,幫助對周武王克殷伐紂。相傳民間流行的血湖拔度即是太乙真人所傳,在道教度亡儀式中,十方救苦天尊化為十殿冥王,掌理十殿地獄,濟度人鬼。經典傳載和儀式內容說明太乙天尊的形象和職能與超度亡魂的關係密切,也顯示超度的形象遠比在此世尋聲救苦的形象更深入人心。
太乙真人道教度亡法事中很重要的主神,除了前述拔度血湖儀式以外,煉度孤魂、焰口施食、中元普度等儀式也都以為主神。這些內容可見於台灣各地道士使用之儀軌。
 
關鍵詞:太乙真人、太乙救苦天尊道教普度
 
考書目
  1. 《太一救苦護身妙經》
  2. 《太上洞玄靈寶救苦妙經》
  3. 《靈寶無量度人上品妙經》
  4. Mollier, Christine. (2008) Guanyin in Taoist Guise, in Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face. Honolulu: University of Hawai’I Press.
  5. 蕭登福。2006。《道教地獄教主 : 太乙救苦天尊》。臺北:新文豐。

Taiyi Zhenren (太乙真人)is the abbreviation of Taiyi Jiuku tianzun (太乙救苦天尊) who is also called Xunsheng Jiuku tianzun (尋聲救苦天尊) or Shifang Jiuku tianzun (十方救苦天尊) etc. Jiuku tianzun could be translated to the Celestial Worthy who Relieves Suffering. This title means that he plays the role of savior in Daoism as the combination of Guan-yin (觀音) and Di-zang (地藏) in Buddhism.
Taiyi Zhenren is an important god in Daoist scriptures. Almost all kind liturgies for salvation should held in his name. Regarding to the Taiyi jiuku hushen miaojing (太一救苦護身妙經), Taiyi Zhenren is a god who lived in Dongfang changle shijie (東方長樂世界), a wonderland in the east. He has all kinds of avatar who can respond to all of the people. Any one in suffering who calls him will meet his avatar. The avatar’s figure will be determinded by how people name it. There is a term specific for the character of Taiyi Zhenren’s avatar that is ‘wusui shengying’ (物隨聲應), object formed responding to the voice accordingly. Not only Taiyi Zhenren’s avatar is various but also his dwelling place. Taiyi Zhenren lives everywhere. He lives in heaven, the mortal world and the hell. The dwelling is up to his devotees where live in. He also has many titles which are the presentation of manifold savoir. In another aspect, Taiyi Zhenren is like Di-zang or Dongyue dadi (東嶽大帝). He manages the registeration of soul and determines if a soul will ascent to heaven or fall into the hell. Regarding to the Taiyi jiuku hushen miaojing, if someone wants to salvate his or her ancestors, classmates, spouse, one can visualize Taiyi Zhenren’s image and chant his title.
In Daoist scriptures, the image of Taiyi Zhenren is a youth with halo, steping on a lotus, and holding a willow branch and a bottle of water in his hand. There are nine lions as his attendances. However, Taiyi Zhenren also got his image in Chinese popular religion. In the Yijian zhi (夷堅志), his image is an officer. In the feng shen yan yi, he is Nazha San Taizi (哪咤三太子)’s master who makes him rebirth and enhances his spiritual power. The most popular image of Taiyi Zhenren is he as the ten kings of hell who save the hungry ghost. It is said that a liturgy for salvation named Xie hu (血湖) is invented by Taiyi Zhenren. Apparently, the savior of suffering and unfortunates in the underworld is the most popular image of Taiyi Zhenren.
 
Keywords: Taiyi Zhenren, Taiyi Jiuku tianzun, Daoism, the liturgy for salvation
 
References:
  1. 《太一救苦護身妙經》
  2. 《太上洞玄靈寶救苦妙經》
  3. 《靈寶無量度人上品妙經》
  4. Mollier, Christine. (2008) Guanyin in Taoist Guise, in Buddhism and Taoism Face to Face. Honolulu: University of Hawai’I Press.
  5. 蕭登福。2006。《道教地獄教主 : 太乙救苦天尊》。臺北:新文豐。
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