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新北市瑞芳區碧雲宮太上老君(陳美華攝)

太上老君簡稱「老君」,又稱「道德天尊」、「混元老君」、「降生天尊」、「太清大帝」、「太上道祖」、「無極老祖」等等,即老子,又號「太清仙境太上老君道德天尊」。由於唐皇室姓李,又尊老君為玄元皇帝,武則天時改稱老君,宋代始稱太上老君。太上老君是道教三清之第三位。在三清塑像裡居右,手執蒲扇。
老子是春秋時楚國人,與孔子同時代,略早於孔子。姓李名耳,字伯陽,因為生來就一頭白髮,被稱為老子。據說孔子曾問老子。據說老子後來騎著青牛出了函谷關,不知所終,只留下了五千字的道德經老子在早道教裡也代表道體,他「生於無形之先,起於太初之前」,能浮游六虛之中,觀察混沌未判的情狀。張道陵寇謙之也皆宣稱所得之道法源於老子下降親傳而得,由上可知老子在早道教的重要性可見一般。另一方面,在陶弘景的《真靈位業圖》位居第四位,最後才定型成為三位至上神之一。老子也就成為道體三分之一的顯現,列入仙班之中。
神仙老子在小説中也佔有一席之地。《西遊記》裡老子是老上老君,住在離恨天兜率天宮裡,他煉的仙丹被孫悟空吃了。為了把丹從孫悟空的身體中再提煉出來,丹沒煉成,孫悟空卻在老君的八卦爐裡練成了火眼金睛。老君在符咒術裡也有其地位,「老上老君急急如律令」也被大眾視為符咒書寫中必要的一部分。全台灣以老子為主祀者約有十九座。神仙老子固然深入民間,但在民間宗教中的影響力不如其它民間諸神,老子在民間最主要的影響力,還是在於其道家哲學和養生處世等方面。
 
關鍵詞:老君、老子、道德天尊
 
考書目
《真靈位業圖》

Taishang laojun (太上老君)is abberviated to Laojun. He is also called Daode tianzun (道德天尊), as one of Sanqing daozu (三清道祖). In the arrangement of Sanqing daozu’s status, Taishang laojun’s status is on the right side, hold a fan on his hand. Taishang laojun is Laozi’s avatar whose surname is Li. Li is right the surname of Tang dynasty’s royal house. When China was under Emperor Tang gaozong (唐高宗) reigned (628~683), he decred that named Laozi as Xuanyuan huangdi, the Emperor Xuanyuan. Till the reign of Wu Zetian (武則天), the only empress in Chinese history, she changed the title to Laojun. In Song dynaty, Laozi was called Taishang laojun which is we known today.
Laozi, in history, was a mystical hermit. His life was ambiguous. His name is Li Er (李耳). When he was born, his hair had already been white. Then He was called Laozi, a mister borned in an old appearance. It is said that Coufucious had been consulted him some question about rite. Finally, he rided a Chinese buffalo out of Hangu Pass (函谷關) and left no trace. The only thing he left to us is the Daode jing (道德經), a worldwide known Chinese book.
 In Daoism, Laozi was neither dead nor disappeared. At first, he was the symbol of Dao, the nature or essence of our cosmos. He was born before there is formless and rose up before the very beginning. Zhang Daoling (張道陵) and Kou Qianzhi (寇謙之)  all claimed that their teaching were imparted the Dao by Laozi, as an immortal who descented to this world from Heaven. However, when Tao Hong-jing (陶弘景) compiled the Zhenling weiye tu (真靈位業圖), he dropped Lao Zi down to the fourth place. Above is Laozi in Daoism, as a religious one.
Besides, in some popular and classical novels of Chinese literature, Taishang laojun also has his place to stand. For example, in the Journey to the West (西遊記), Taishang laojun, as an immortal who is busy in alchemy, live in Doushuai tian (兜率天). Unfortunally, the Mokey King, Sun Wukong (孫悟空) steals all of Taishang laojun’s magical pills and takes them to enhanced his own spiritual power. As a noble immortal, Taishang laojun is made a fool by Sun Wukong.
There are about nine temples dedicated to Taishang Laojun. Comparing to the popularity of Laozi and Daode jing, this figure is very low. Apparently, phiolosophical Laozi has more influence on Taiwan then religious Laozi, Taishang Laojun.
 
 
Keywords: Taishang laojun, laojun, Daode tianzun
 
Reference:
《真靈位業圖》
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