:::
全國宗教資訊網
 宗教知識+
宗教知識家
巧聖仙師(Qiaosheng Xianshi)
::: 巧聖仙師(Qiaosheng Xianshi)
* 首頁 > 宗教知識+ > 宗教神祇 > 巧聖仙師(Qiaosheng Xianshi)
*
0分
分享圖示
分享
勘誤圖示
勘誤

臺中市東勢區巧聖仙師巧聖仙師(陳美華攝)

巧聖仙師即是魯班,是台灣重要的職業神之一,又作巧聖先師、魯班公、魯班仙師、公輸先師、魯班爺、魯班聖祖、老班公、志班公、大師府等。魯班在先秦的古籍裡,有種種不同的名字,例如《記》、《戰國策》、《呂氏春秋》、《史記》中,記為公輸般;《墨子》第五十卷〈公輸〉是其專卷,作公輸盤;《漢書》、《後漢書》作公輸班,因為是魯國人,以國為姓,名為魯班。明午榮等人所編《新鐫京板工師雕鏤正式魯班經匠家鏡》,卷一「魯班仙師源流」記載:「師諱班,姓公輸,字依智」。也有簡稱作「公輸」。
魯班是先秦時人,大約在西元前510-440年之間活動,因為和墨子在楚國會面,經墨子的勸告後,從此反對戰爭,不再為戰事製作兵器而留名。關於魯班還有許多傳說,傳說他是天上的星宿神普安老祖的弟子,普安老祖瞞過玉帝,他懷有創造世界的夢想,於是藉著魯班和另一位弟子張班的巧藝達成造世的目的。在《墨子》裡,他替楚國製作攻城的設備非常精良,用以攻打宋國。後來受墨子感召才變成福利大眾的工匠。此外,因為他的手藝太精巧,據說作了一隻能飛天的木鳶。當八仙背著五湖四海水和日、月,要通過趙州大石橋時,他就在石橋下托住石橋。因為魯班神乎其技的工藝技術,後代的工匠即奉魯班為祖師爺和行業神。自明清至今,包括木、瓦、石等各種匠工皆以之為行業神,並組成各種兼具宗教和行會性質的團體。
中國民間裡奉祀魯班的的活動,根據敦煌文獻裡的上樑文,推測早在唐已有相關活動,前引明代《新鐫京板工師雕鏤正式魯班經匠家鏡》則有更明確的記錄,至少當時的工匠們向巧聖仙師行有春秋二祭。台灣的魯班公會主要的祭祀活動是在魯班公的聖誔日,也就是農曆五月七日前後,進行祭神、聯誼等活動。此外,魯班也影響常民的日常生活至深,最普遍者是一般人施作木工、土木建築時,都會使用俗稱「文公尺」的的魯班尺,丈量出吉祥的量度值,再依之施作。文公尺長一尺四寸四分,以生老病死為基礎,劃分為八格,用之丈量長度時,必須注意其吉凶刻記。
全台灣主祀巧聖仙師的宇約有30座,大多是在1961年之後設立,最早設立的是台中東勢的巧聖仙師,大約建於1833年左右,當地人稱為「仙師」,設立原因和當地早為木業重鎮有關。此外,全臺的各種神明會約有195個,較具歷史者有鹿港的錦森興魯班公會,其聯誼活動因為近百年的演變,已有魯班公宴的活動,並希望藉由神明會與同業聯誼組織,募款以興建宇奉祀巧聖先師。
 
關鍵詞:巧聖仙師、魯班、班公、文公尺
 
考書目
劉飛白。1987。《中國工藝傳奇》臺北:星光出版社。
劉文政。2007。〈台灣地區魯班信仰之研究〉。台南:國立台南大學台灣文化研究所碩論。
張軒哲。2003。〈魯班公會與地方產業發展關係:以鹿港錦森興魯班公會與東勢巧聖仙師會為比較研究〉雲林:雲林科技大學文化資產維護系碩士班。
鄧傑銘。2008。〈公、地方菁英與地方社會-以東勢巧聖仙師為例(1775-1895)〉南投:暨南國際大學歷史學系碩士論文。

Qiaosheng Xianshi is Lu Ban (510-440 BC.) who was a famous carpenter or engineer, a contemporary of Mozi. He is also called Lu Ban gong (魯班公). However, his true name is various. There are his names, including Gongshu Ban (公輸班), Gongshu Ben (公輸般), and Gongshu Pan (公輸盤). Lu Ban is his commonly known name.
As a historical figure, Lu Ban’s life stories are recorded majorly in the Mozi, a book whose title is the same as Mozi (479-381 BC). At first, Lu Ban is a carpertar who constructed siege weapons for the king of Chu state (楚國) in the Warring states period (403-221 BC). After he met Mozi and had a conversation with him, he changed his mind and became an anti-war person. He began to create tools and machines to benefit people.
Since Lu Ban’s craftsmanship is outstanding, there are many legned about his work. For example, it is said that he made a wooden bird which could fly and stay in the air for three days without power system. Once the Eight Immortals (八仙) were going to cross a bridge carring on all of the water in the world, Lu Ban as the abutment to support them. Lu Ban even played the decisive role in creating the world. It is said that Lu Ban was the disciple of Master Pu An (普安老祖) who intended to creat the world without reporting to the Jade Emperor. Lu Ban helped his master to accomplish this project. However, it is not clear whether Lu Ban got punishment or not. One thing can be sure. Because his magical and powerful craftsmanship, he is the patron god of all kind of craftman.
The worship of Lu Ban can be dated back to Tang dynasty. In Ming dynasty, the guild of craftman held the major liturgies in the spring and autumn. In Taiwan, the major occasion of Lu Ban is his birthday which is May, seventh in Chinese lunar calendar. Besids, Lu Ban also influences the carpenter and construction work. There is a ruler called Wen Gong chi (文公尺), Wen Gong’s ruler. A basic meter on Wen Gong’s ruler is about fourty eight centimeters. When the craftman is designing a new work, the measure should follow the lucky calibration on the ruler.  
There are about thirty temples dedicated to Qiaosheng Xianshi. Most of them were founded after 1961, except the Xianshi temple in Dongshi (東勢), Taizhong (台中) city, which is founded in 1833. Dongshi used to be a chief lamber town in Taiwan. That is the reason why the temple is constructed. Besides, there are about 195 associations in relation of the worship of Lu Ban. The famous one is in Lu Gang (鹿港) named Jinsenxing Lu Ban Gonghui (錦森興魯班公會). The association has been organized over one hundred years. Its new goal is to found a temple dedicated to Qiaosheng Xianshi. Apparently, Lu Ban, as Qiaosheng Xianshi is still vivid in people’s live.
 
Keywords: Qiaosheng Xianshi, Lu Ban, Wen Gong chi
 
References:
劉飛白。1987。《中國工藝傳奇》臺北:星光出版社。
劉文政。2007。〈台灣地區魯班信仰之研究〉。台南:國立台南大學台灣文化研究所碩論。
張軒哲。2003。〈魯班公會與地方產業發展關係:以鹿港錦森興魯班公會與東勢巧聖仙師會為比較研究〉雲林:雲林科技大學文化資產維護系碩士班。
鄧傑銘。2008。〈公、地方菁英與地方社會-以東勢巧聖仙師為例(1775-1895)〉南投:暨南國際大學歷史學系碩士論文。
返回列表