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屏東縣恆春鎮應公應公(廖吟梅攝)

有應公是有應公所祭祀的對象,祂們是沒有子孫供奉、不知姓名的枯骨,由於清代至台灣拓墾之移民,或因水土不服,或疫病、械鬥等各種因素客死他鄉,死後草草埋葬,日久容易曝露,墳墓經風雨沖擊損壞,枯骨四散各處,人見之恐懼,害怕無緣鬼魂作祟而建奉祀。或因其性質不同而有不同的稱呼,大體上死於平亂的人稱為義民爺、忠勇公,死於械鬥者稱老大公、義勇公,一般無祀枯骨則稱因地域、收葬方式而有不同稱呼,如金斗公、有應公、百姓公、姓公、善公、義勇爺、無嗣陰公、水流公、水流媽、大眾爺、大眾媽、大塚公、大墓公,或逕稱為某姓公、某姑娘、某先生等等,如經地方主神敕封,則會升格稱為某某將軍、某某千歲等。不同稱呼中又以有應公、善爺的稱呼最為普遍。
        台灣有應公非常普遍,大部分規模皆很小,多於骸骨發現或罹難處建立小祭拜,即所謂陰,一般而言多無門,也無門神,門楣上常懸掛有紅布,題有「有求必應」字樣。屋脊亦不做鴟尾等雕飾,與一般宇不同。然而部分宇因信徒眾多,建築形式常不斷擴大,甚至與一般宇無異,而有應公也常因為靈異神蹟,而在信仰中升格成正神,成為地方守護神,例如客家人信仰的義民爺。
台灣民間信仰認為人死為鬼,有子孫祭祀的鬼則稱為祖先,有陽上子孫供養不愁衣食,所以會庇佑子孫。沒有後代祭祀的鬼在冥界成為餓鬼而為害人間。民間相信有應公不論好事壞事均有求必應,貶惡揚善為神明的職責,但有應公則善惡不分,為庶民滿足其生活慾望大開方便之門,有求必應,這說明有應公並非正神,並帶有厲鬼的氣息。一般而言,農曆七月俗稱鬼月及清明節是祭拜有應公最主要的時間,其他日子則視信徒需求而定,並無同其他宇一般,有固定的祭祀日。祭品多以熟食、葷食為主,紙錢則為銀紙

 

屏東縣恆春鎮應公應公(廖吟梅攝)


關鍵詞:有應公、有應公、大眾爺、水流公、水流媽

考書目:
  1. 戴文鋒。2008.11。〈臺灣民間有應公信仰考實〉。《道教月刊》,35:50-52。
  2. 戴文鋒。2008.10。〈臺灣民間有應公信仰考實〉。《道教月刊》,34:44-45。
  3. 戴文鋒。2008.09。〈臺灣民間有應公信仰考實〉。《道教月刊》,33:44-45。
  4. 黃文博。1991。〈臺灣民間「有應公信仰」類型分析〉。《民俗曲藝》,71:212-223。
  5. 高賢治。1989。〈臺灣幽冥界特殊的神祇﹣﹣大眾爺、有應公、崩敗爺及池頭婦人〉。《臺灣風物》,39(3):125-150。

Youying gong (有應公) is a category of god in Chinese popular religion rather a specific god. Moreover, they are the spirits or ghosts but not gods to whom are dedicated in Youying gong temple. During early period in Taiwan, there were plagues and field battles. Many people were dead and buried hurriedly without any religious ritual. Then the bon of dead body were scatterd and looked fright. People then eatablished Youying gong temples to enshrine and pacify them. That is Youying gong originated from.
The idea of worship Youying gong comes from Chinese thought that everyone should be worship and memorized after they are dead in religious way, or they will become an evil spirit or a hungury ghost. Youying gong’s idea is specific to those who are dead without their family members to care about or the dead body is hard to identify.
        Youying gong’s name is various. There are Jindou gong (金斗公), Baixing gong (百姓公), Wanxing gong (姓公), Wanshan gong (善公),Yiyong ye (義勇爺), Shuiliu gong (水流公), Shuiliu ma (水流媽),Dazhong ye (大眾爺), Dazhong ma (大眾媽), and Damu gong (大墓公) etc. Youying gong is also included in the hierarchy of god in Chinese religion. They also got promotion by local official god, Chenghuang (城隍), the city god. Then the title will be changed to jiangjun (將軍) or qiansui (千歲), the general or the duke.
        Youying gong temple is almost everywhere in Taiwan. Most of them are in small scale. There is neither door nor the patron god of door. Above the gate, there is a strip of red cloth hung on. Four character, Youqiu biying (有求必應), every request should be responded, are written on the cloth. The temple’s outlook is plain without too many decorations.
        The timing about worshiping Youying gong are in Qingming (清明), about the fifth or forth, April, and on July in Chinese lunar calendar, the ghost month. The offering are prepared meat mainly and burning spirit money (銀紙).
 
Keywords: Youying gong, Dazhong ye, Youqiu biying
 
References:
  1. 戴文鋒。2008.11。〈臺灣民間有應公信仰考實〉。《道教月刊》,35:50-52。
  2. 戴文鋒。2008.10。〈臺灣民間有應公信仰考實〉。《道教月刊》,34:44-45。
  3. 戴文鋒。2008.09。〈臺灣民間有應公信仰考實〉。《道教月刊》,33:44-45。
  4. 黃文博。1991。〈臺灣民間「有應公信仰」類型分析〉。《民俗曲藝》,71:212-223。
  5. 高賢治。1989。〈臺灣幽冥界特殊的神祇﹣﹣大眾爺、有應公、崩敗爺及池頭婦人〉。《臺灣風物》,39(3):125-150。
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