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臺南後壁下茄苳旌忠岳武穆王(蕭翔文攝)

岳武穆王就是岳飛(1103-1142),又稱岳飛元帥、岳文元帥、精忠元帥、岳武元帥、岳府王爺等等。岳飛是宋河南人,傳說當他出生時有大鵬鳥在屋頂飛鳴,因以為名,字鵬舉。岳飛剛出生時就遭逢黄河潰堤,幸賴母親抱坐水盆中才大難不死。岳飛遇黃河決堤能夠免難,人們乃以為吉兆。岳飛自幼異於常童,力大無比,稍長即擅長武藝,成人後在宋徽宗時從軍,立下許多軍功,高宗時賜以精忠報國旗號,官至太尉,甚至大破金兵於河南朱仙鎮,隱然將北伐以收復北宋失土。然而,岳飛的北伐主張卻與高宗和主政者秦檜的政策不合,由秦檜從軍中召回宮廷,以莫須有的罪名處死,年三十九歲,葬於杭州西湖,宋孝宗時才加諡號武穆以平反其罪名。
由於岳飛戲劇性的生平,加上忠於皇帝和國家,兼有保衛民族的強烈性格,是以每每隨中國歷代皇帝所屬的族裔改變他的定位,也影響民間奉祀的情形。元代由於是異族統治,礙於岳飛民族色彩強烈,政策採取提昇關公的地位以取代岳飛。民間奉祀岳飛得到官方的核可和推崇始於明,在明太祖廢武成王制後,即以岳武穆王為祀奉對象,並敕封為靖魔大帝,岳飛乃成為官方認同的武神。到清代又因清皇為金人之後,是岳飛的敵人,因此官方再度提昇關公而抑岳飛。經歷宋、元、明、清四代,岳飛的神格始終因為政治,與關公之間有著競爭的關係。直到帝制崩潰,民國成立後,岳飛才因政策施行改與關公合祀,除了少數以岳飛為主祀者,多半配於關聖帝君之側。
目前台灣粗估以岳武穆王為主祀者約在11座,以台南為最多,約有六座。其中知名者有宜蘭碧霞宮,又名岳武穆王,以其岳武穆王祭而知名。碧霞宮建立於西元一八九六年,時值中日甲午戰後臺灣割讓日本,地方人士憤於將受外族統治,由進士楊士芳與陳祖疇等人發起肇建,是年三月八日在宜蘭坎興街創立「碧霞宮鸞堂」,取其「碧血丹心望曉霞」之意。每年農曆 2 月 15 日為聖誕祭典,其儀式為三獻釋奠,還有全台僅見的武佾舞,目前成為地方的特色。
 
關鍵詞:岳武穆王、岳飛、碧霞宮、武佾舞
 
考書目
  1. 孫江、黃東蘭。200412。〈岳飛敘述、公共記憶與國族認同〉。《二十一世紀》,86:88-100
  2. 張清發。200403。〈岳飛研究述評〉。《中國文化月刊》,279:31-57。


       Yuewu muwang (岳武穆王) is Yue Fei (岳飛, 1103-1142). He is also called the General Yue Fei (岳飛元帥). Yue Fei was a great general in Southern Song dynasty. It is said that when he was born, there was a roc flying above his house. By the omen,  he was named Fei (飛), flying. When he was just born, the Yellow River was in flood. His mother held him in arm and sat in a huge tub to take a refuge. They kept alive fourtnatly in this catastrophy and people believed that it was an auspicious. As a kid, Yue Fei’s strength was bigger than any others and had talent in martial art. When he was a teenager, he attended army during Emperor Hui Zong (徽宗). He got many achievement during the war against the Jin state (金). He got promotion and became the chief of the general staff, tai yu (太尉). Defeating the army of Jin in Henan province (河南) was his illustrious military exploits. He even claimed to fight Jin state back and recoverd the northern Song reigning territory. However, this idea was in conflict with Emperor Gao zong’s (高宗) and the Prime Minister Qin Kuai’s (秦檜) policy. Prime Minister Qin Kuai summoned Yue Fei back to the capital city from the frontier and sentenced him to death without reason. Yue Fei was dead tragically on thirty-nine years old and buried by the West Lake, Hang zhou (杭州) . After twenty years of his death, his miscarriage of justice was recoverd in 1162.
Yue Fei’s life story is so dramatical and his passion on nation and loyality to royal house. He became a god and cultural hero almost as soon as he was dead. However, as a god, his statues and position was also changed regarding the race of the royal house. In Yuan (元) and Qing (清) dynasty, the royal house belonged to the Mongolian and Jurchen people separately. They were not the Han Chinese which Yue Fei belonged to. In order to maintain the reign stably, they suppressed the cult or worship of Yue Fei and upheld the worship of Guan Yu (關羽) instead. Only in Ming dynasty, Ming Tai Zu (明太祖) who drove Mongolian royal house away, decreed Yue Fei’s religious title as Jingmo dadi (靖魔大帝), Exorcising demon the Great Emperor. Until the imperial system in China is crashed, the competiting of religious position between Guan Yu and Yue Fei is end. However, Yue Fei is still as a foil god, pei si shen (陪祀神), to Guan Yu in general.
It is estimated about eleven temples dedicated to Yue Fei in Taiwan. There are six located in Tainan where is the most one county.
 
Keywords: Yuewu muwang, Yue Fei, Guan Yu
 
References:
  1. 孫江、黃東蘭。200412。〈岳飛敘述、公共記憶與國族認同〉。《二十一世紀》,86:88-100。張清發。200403。〈岳飛研究述評〉。《中國文化月刊》,279:31-57。
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