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延平郡王(Yanping junwang)
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臺南市中西區延平郡王延平郡王(陳美華攝)

延平郡王是鄭成功(1624~1662)的封號,由南明永曆帝所賜。鄭成功是明末的將領,因為有功於明政府,賜以國姓「朱」,遂有國姓爺的稱號。鄭成功是台灣開發史上的重要人物,他打敗荷蘭人,乃是近代漢人開拓臺灣的奠基者,所以又有「開山王」或「開台聖王」的稱號。雖然鄭成功入主臺灣之後不到一年即過世,但他死後成神,且在全臺各地都有他的不同傳說,這和鄭成功開拓臺灣的英雄事蹟以及反清復明的忠義精神關聯甚深。鄭成功在台灣的傳說即自這兩項主軸出發,例如鄭成功被神授命要在臺灣各處找尋反清復明的三項重要物品,即玉印、米糧、木材,三者合稱三寶;還有一系列剷除與山、石頭、動物等有關物怪的故事,例如在鶯歌除掉妖石化成的鳶鳥鸚鵡,龜山島的故事、蟾蜍山、拇指山的故事等等。這些故事都說明鄭成功信仰在台灣本地化的發展。
鄭成功的宇在台南的發展有兩個脈絡。一是發展自鄭氏的家,一是發展自民間的鄭成功信仰。據說在鄭成功死後隔年,即1663年,臺灣即立有鄭成功的,由鄭成功之子鄭經建於承天府寧南坊,用來奉祀鄭成功及先祖。在清廷佔有臺灣後,名為鄭氏大宗堂,後改為昭格堂,臺灣光復後稱為鄭氏家,位於台南市中西區忠義路二段36號,2002年改為鄭成功祖
另一脈絡是1663年至1883年清領之前,將近二十年之間,臺灣各地可能已有許多地方建有主祀延平郡王的宇,以紀念其功蹟和符應人們日常的宗教需要。因此,在清廷接管臺灣之後,官方立場一方面基於治臺需要,並不公開打壓,而是暗施壓力,以免演變成傾覆清統治的力量。另一方面,百姓雖不敢大張旗祭拜延平郡王,暗地仍主祀祀鄭成功,因此延平郡王的信仰在臺灣仍非常重要且有影響力。牡丹社事件(1871)後,清廷大臣沈葆禎巡按臺灣,上書清廷請准予台灣民眾奉祀鄭成功,鄭成功信仰才成為公開的活動,官方並立有延平郡王,1875年即列入官方的祀典之中。估計清時全臺約有36座以延平郡王為主祀神的宇。至日治時,由於鄭成功中日混血的特殊身份,延平郡王的發展仍未受政治影響而衰退,全臺成長至約57座。目前臺灣約在60多座至百座之間。從台北到屏東,不論閩南、客家族群皆有延平郡王
延平郡王會活動在某些地區仍是當地的重要節慶,且頗具影響力。例如台北蘆洲地方三年一度的醮會即稱「國姓醮」,源於清時鄭成功保祐當地人在漳泉人士的械鬥中獲勝。又如至全台各地鄭成功的沙東宮,也是所在地南投竹山鎮的重要寺之一。或是創立不到二十年的台北護國延平宮,則藉由降神問事為人解惑而興起。至於其它地方的鄭成功多保有春秋二祭,並持續進行宇的日常活動。鄭成功的發展在在都說明了延平郡王信仰在臺灣仍延續不綽輟。
 
關鍵詞:延平郡王、鄭成功、開台聖王、國姓醮
 
  1. 翁佳音。2002。〈諸神讓位:鄭成功多現象之探討〉。《歷史月刊》,179:108-113。
  2. 高致華。2006。《鄭成功信仰》。合肥:黃山書社出版。
  3. 王見川。2004。〈光復前台灣的鄭成功信仰〉。《道統之美》(桃園:中華道統文化學會)。

Yanping junwang is Zheng Chenggong’s (鄭成功,1624~1662) title which was imparted by the emperop Yongli in Ming dynasty. Zheng Chenggong was a general in Ming daynsty. He is also know as Guoxing ye (國姓爺). Zheng Chenggong got his title Guoxing ye because of his loyal to Ming royal house when Ming was invaded by Qing (清). He got the surname Zhu (朱) which is Ming royal house’s surname imparted by Ming emperor.
Zheng Chenggong is an important figure in the development of Taiwan. He chased away Netherlander from Taiwan and founded the stepstone for Chinese settler. So he also is titled Kaishan wang (開山王) or Kaitai shengwang (開台聖王) and there are many legends about his reclaiming in Taiwan. However, Zheng Chenggong occupied Taiwas as the base in order to recover Ming dynasty from Qing state but he was dead soon in Taiwan after he defeated Netherlander. In other words, Zheng Chenggong actually stayed in Taiwan no more than six months, but his temples and devotees flourishing in Taiwasn as soon as his death.
All of Zheng Chenggong’s legend in Taiwan are regarding to his will to defeat the new born Qing empire and to recover his mother country, Ming empire in Mainland China. It is said that he had to find three treasures in Taiwan or he would not succeed in combating with Qing army. These three treasures were a jade seal, grains, and lumber. However, he failed this mission. Another story is about he shooting a kite demon and a parrot demon who transformed from stones at Yingge (鶯歌), Taipei county. As a result, the two demons became the stone again. Besids, there are many name of places in relation of Zheng Chenggong’s legend.
The temples dedicated to Zheng Chenggong were steming from two points. The first one was by his son Zheng Jing (鄭經). Zheng Jing founded the first temple either as Zheng clan’s ancestral temple or dedicated to Zheng Chenggong in 1663, the year after Zheng Chenggong was dead. When Qingempire took over Taiwan, Qing government did not abolish the temple but order Zheng’s family to change the temple’s title to Zhaoge Tang (昭格堂). When the Japan ended Qing’s reign in Taiwan, the temple’s title was changed again. It named Zhengshi jiamiao (鄭氏家), the temple of Zheng clan. Another one starting point was people worshoping Zheng Chenggong spontaneously after he was dead. From 1663 to 1883, there were many temples dedicated to Zheng Chenggong flourishing in Taiwan. Chinese in Taiwan worshiped Zheng Chenggong as memorizing and praying for blessing from him. Even after the Qing empire took the reign in Taiwan, in order to prevent arousing rebellion, official still permitted the worship of Zheng Chenggong. After 19895, when Taiwain was under Japan’s reign, the temples dedicated to Zheng Chenggong were keeping the same. It is because of Zheng Chenggong’s maternal linkage to Japan.
It is estimated there were 36 temples dedicated to Zheng Chenggong in 1875. In the reign of Japan, the number rose to 57. It is about 60 in Taiwan now. Apparently, as a god, Yanping junwang, Zheng Chenggong’s influence is still developing in Taiwan.
 
Keywords: Yanping junwang, Zheng Chenggong, Guoxing ye
 
References:
  1. 翁佳音。2002。〈諸神讓位:鄭成功多現象之探討〉。《歷史月刊》,179:108-113。
  2. 高致華。2006。《鄭成功信仰》。合肥:黃山書社出版。
  3. 王見川。2004。〈光復前台灣的鄭成功信仰〉。《道統之美》(桃園:中華道統文化學會)。

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