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明明上帝(Ming Ming Shang Di)
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臺南市安南區光聖堂明明上帝(陳美華攝)

明明上帝是一貫道的至上神,全名為「明明上帝、無量清虛、至尊至聖、三界十方、靈真宰」。明明是形容詞,形容明智、明察,多用來歌頌帝王或神靈,例如晉陶淵明詩「明明上天鑒,為惡不可履」,〈太康頌〉裡有「明明上帝,臨下有赫。」還有宋王禹作:「明明聖天子,德教如四維」。「明明上帝」在古代主要是用於祭文或讚誦文裡表示上天,並沒有任何宗教傳統用來專指其至上神。直到近代,明明上帝才被一貫道一貫道衍生出的教派如彌勒大道等視為至上神,等同無生老母。無生老母源於羅教,兼具人格神和人格神兩種特質,在人格神方面,它既是創造世界的神,也是拯救世界的神。另外一方面,無生一詞也將無生老母的屬性推向非人格神,表示它是一切現象的源頭。上述兩條脈絡和明明上帝、無生老母的概念繼承兩個不同的源頭有關,一是中國古老的西王母信仰,另一個佛教中的無生概念。不同宗教傳統概念的結合融貫是明清民間教派很重要的面向。發展至今,一貫道總會已宣告「無生老母即儒教之維皇上帝、道教之瑤池金母、佛教之大日如來,明代新興宗教之無生老母或無極聖祖、基督教之上帝、回教之安拉」。此一宣告已經將中國民間教派的融攝概念更向世界宗教推昇。
一貫道佛堂在陳設中點有一盞油燈代表明明上帝或無生老母。對無生老母也有一特別的標記來標示祂,作☉。也供有「明明上帝、無量清虛、至尊至聖、三界十方、靈真宰」的牌位以為標示。

 
關鍵詞:明明上帝、無生老母、一貫道、彌勒大道
 
考書目
李湘杰。2000。〈明清寶卷中無生老母神話之研究〉。文化大學碩士論文。

Ming Ming Shang Di is the highest god in I-Kuan Dao (一貫道). Originally, this Chinese term, Ming-Ming-Shang-Di, is often used in some ancient literature or poetry for praying god or addressing religious emotion to denote the Chinese almighty God. However,  Ming-Ming-Shang-Di is not used in any religion tradition. Ming-ming (明明) means luminous and wise in Chinese to express that ShangDi, the Chinese almighty God is powerful and knows this world well without any misunderstanding. Until recently, I-Kuan Dao and some other similar popular sectarian regard Ming-Ming-Shang-Di as the highest God. To I-Kuan Dao, Ming Ming Shang Di is equal to the Wuji Laomu (無極老母) or Wusheng laomu (無生老母)who is the transcendent above all being. Wuji Laomu’s nature has two aspects. One is personal, another one is impersonal. On the personal one she is the creator or the mother of all being. On the impersonal, she is the symbol of the natural law and phenomena’s rules. Now, I-Kuan Dao has been claimed that Ming Ming Shang Di is equal to the almighty God of Confucian, the Golden mother of Daoist, the Mahāvairocana of Buddhist, the God of Christian, and the Allah of Muslim. In I-Kuan Dao ‘s announcement, The full name of Ming Ming Shang Di is the Bright Illustrious Almighty, the Eternal Pure Tranquil Void, the Utmost Sacred and Revered, and the Lord of all beings in the entire Universe (明明上帝、無量清虛、至尊至聖、三界十方、靈真宰). Surely, it is a step of the syncretism sect of Chinese religion’s idea that moves forward to the world religions.
When the disciples of I-Kuan Dao arrange their shrine, they will place one lamp on the table that represents Ming Ming Shang Di and enshrine a tablet with the name of The Bright Illustrious Almighty Eternal Pure Tranquil Void Utmost Sacred and Revered, the Lord of all beings in the entire Universe.
 
Keywords: Ming Ming Shang Di, I-Kuan Dao, Wuji Laomu
 
References:
李湘杰。2000。〈明清寶卷中無生老母神話之研究〉。文化大學碩士論文。
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