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臺北市文山區指南宮東華帝君(陳美華攝)

東華帝君即「東王公」,有許多稱號,又稱「木公」、「東王父」、「扶桑大帝」,還有「青童君」、「青提帝君」等等。東華帝君的傳說始於漢,在東方朔的《神異經》裡,東王公住在東荒山的大石室中,人形鳥面有虎尾,每天和玉女投壺為戲。在東漢文物裡,也可見東王公、西王母並列的記錄,在銅鏡、畫磚上、墓室裡,都有東王公和西王母的造像並列,多作羽人形象,在墓券裡,東王公、西王母是見證人。晉葛洪《枕中書》裡,東王公被稱為扶桑大帝,住在碧海之中的宮殿。從先秦至六的古籍,包括《真誥》、《真靈位業圖》、《真教元符經》、《塵外記》、《列仙傳》、《神異經》、《東荒經》、《中荒經》、《海內十洲記》等等,東王公有種種不同的描述。分析這些說法和出土文物,東王公的神格解釋也就相當分歧。有些說法認為東王公是太陽神,與西王母相對,東王公表日出,西王母表日落。有些說法認為祂和五嶽有關,是泰山帝君的哥哥。有些說法認為兩者各表陰陽。種種說法顯示東華帝君和方位、自然物、自然力量有相當的關聯。到宋洞真部《金蓮正宗記》裡記載「帝君姓王氏,字玄甫,道號東華子。」值此時,東王公轉變而成的東華帝君,已成為北全真的傳承祖,這五祖即是東華帝君王玄甫、正陽祖師鐘離權、純陽祖師呂洞賓,海蟾祖師劉成宗及重陽祖師王允卿。東華帝君也代表著東王公從自然神轉變成人格神。後來東華帝君在明清小說、鸞書、善書裡又有了許多變化。在《元始上真眾仙記》、《三教源流搜神大全》裡,東華帝君管理男仙的登錄,男仙須先拜謁東王公,後西王母,然後才能得見天仙。
       然而,道教的解釋並未得到全面的認同,在當代台灣,民眾仍有主張東華帝君是源於東、西方的概念,乃是造物初始化出的陰陽之氣,可育養天地物。此外,雖然東王公和西王母自古並列,在當代台灣這兩位神祗的火發展並不對稱,相較於王母信仰,東華帝君或東王公的信仰者少了許多。據統計全台灣以西王母為主祀神者約有234座,而東王公為主祀神者則只有9座,以台北縣為最多,計有3座,且在許多王母或道教宇裡則為陪祀神。結合母娘信仰的發展,以及大多數宇都興建於二次大戰之後的歷史來看,台灣東華帝君的信仰似乎是母娘或王母信仰發展過程中的相伴現象。
 
關鍵詞:東華帝君、東王公、西王母
 
考書目
  1. 李錦山。2002.12。〈西王母神話與西王母圖像(5)--關於東王公〉。《故宮文物月刊》,20(9):94-97。
  2. 國立臺中技術學院應用中文系、苗栗後龍無極聖宮合編。2008。《海峽兩岸東王公西王母信仰學術硏討會論文集》臺中:國立臺中技術學院應用中文系。
  3. 張秀君。1991.12。〈淺論紹興出土漢代畫像鏡之主神及其反映之神仙思想--試以東王公與西王母來探討〉。《道教學探索》,5:1-66。
  4. 葛洪。《枕中書》,於《正統道藏》洞真部。
  5. 蕭登福。2009.06。〈男仙之首、元陽祖氣、日君神格的東王公及其神格轉變〉。《世界宗教學刊》,13:23-49。

Donghua dijun (東華帝君) is Dong Wang gong (東王公), an ancient god originated in Han dynasty. Regarding to the Shen Yi jing (神異經), a scripture in Han dynasty, Donghua dijun was a god with human figure, bird-like head, and tiger’s tail. He lived in a cave by Mountain Dong-huang (東荒山) . There were also many material or places inscriped both Dong Wang gong and Xi Wang mu (西王母) paralelly, including bronze mirrors, in coffin chambers, and painted bricks. Most of them are painted in human figure with wings. In summary, early image of Donghua dijun is a therianthropic god.
       Besides, there are manifold portrayal of Donghua dijun in various Daoist scriptures, including the Zhen gao (真誥), Zhenling Weiye tu (真靈位業圖), Zhenjiao Yuanfu jing (真教元符經), Chenwai ji (塵外記), Liexian chuan (列仙傳), Shenyi jing (神異經), Donghuang jing (東荒經),Zhonghuang jing (中荒經), Hainei Shizhou ji (海內十洲記)etc. So many Daoist writers wanted to define who Donghua dijun is in their own understanding. That is the reson why there is no consistent description and explanination of Donghua dijun.
       Some scholars thought that Donghua dijun as Dong Wang gong is the god of sun originaly. In contrast to Xi wang mu, Donghua dijun symbolize the sun rising, and Xi wang mu symbolizes the sun setting. Other students argue that Donghua dijun and Xi wang mu represent the yin and yang separately. Few scholars thought Donghua dijun is in relation of Five mountains. He was the elder brother of mountain Tai. Above all, Donghua dijun was apparently in relation of natural world.
       In Song dynasty, Donghua dijun was not a natural god anymore. This transformation was done by Song-Yuan Daoist. He was named Wang Xuanfu (王玄甫) and regarded as a immortal who ascents from this world . He got the religious title Donghua dijun and became the first patriarch of Quanzhen school (全真教). Finally, Donghua dijun is the chief of all new immortal who just ascent to heaven and manage them to register in the immortal name list.
       In Taiwan, the Daoist idea about Donghua dijun is not accepted. People still thought Donghua dijun represented the east and the vital energy yang qi (陽氣). He nursing all kind of creatures.
       Though Donghua dijun is accompanied with Xi Wang Mu, the temples which is dedicated to Donghua dijun are few. There are about nine temples of Donghua dijun. Comparing with the number of Xi Wang Mu or Wang Mu’s temples, it is few. There are about thousands of Wang Mu’s temple in Taiwan. Referencing the fact that most of the temples dedicated to Donghua dijun are founded after the Second World War, the arising of Donghua dijun is a following worship after Wang Mu in Taiwan.
 
Keywords: Donghua dijun, Dong Wang gong, Xi Wang mu
 
References:
  1. 李錦山。2002.12。〈西王母神話與西王母圖像(5)--關於東王公〉。《故宮文物月刊》,20(9):94-97。
  2. 國立臺中技術學院應用中文系、苗栗後龍無極聖宮合編。2008。《海峽兩岸東王公西王母信仰學術硏討會論文集》臺中:國立臺中技術學院應用中文系。
  3. 張秀君。1991.12。〈淺論紹興出土漢代畫像鏡之主神及其反映之神仙思想--試以東王公與西王母來探討〉。《道教學探索》,5:1-66。
  4. 葛洪。《枕中書》,於《正統道藏》洞真部。
  5. 蕭登福。2009.06。〈男仙之首、元陽祖氣、日君神格的東王公及其神格轉變〉。《世界宗教學刊》,13:23-49。
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