:::
全國宗教資訊網
 宗教知識+
宗教知識家
田都元帥(Tiandou yuanshuai)
::: 田都元帥(Tiandou yuanshuai)
* 首頁 > 宗教知識+ > 宗教神祇 > 田都元帥(Tiandou yuanshuai)
*
0分
分享圖示
分享
勘誤圖示
勘誤
彰化縣鹿港鎮玉渠宮田都元帥(陳美華攝)

田都元師是民間的音樂神,又稱田公、田相公、田元帥、田公元帥、田府元帥、相公爺。按其名稱有兩種可能的斷句方式,一說田是其姓氏的避晦,職位「都元帥」,都元帥既是古代的官職之一,也是道教神祇中常見的神官,「都」的意思是百人或千人的編組單位,也是頭目、領袖的俗稱。另一種可能是「田都」,職稱元帥,田都與其出生地有關,指住在田裡。上述不同的解釋皆與田都元帥豐富的神話故事有關。
在台灣流行的田都元帥傳說裡,田都元帥原是唐時人,姓雷,名海青,是廷中的樂官。母親因為感星神「翼宿星君」下降有孕,未婚生子不得見容於社會,出生在田裡,被佃農收養,因為其音樂天份極高,長大後入宮成為傑出的梨園弟子。安祿山叛亂時雷海青仍效忠唐皇室,被安祿山殺害。後由唐室誥封「天下梨園大總管」,並立祀之。死後曾數度顯靈,以雷為旗號,但因雲霧遮掩雨字,玉帝乃賜姓為田,因此成為田元帥。也有人認為「田」是翼宿星君隱晦的寫法。從文獻上考證,田都元帥可能是從《三教源流搜神大全》裡的「風火院田元帥」演變而來,田元帥本來即具有醫療,主掌音樂、舞蹈、武術等職能,也有兒童保護神等性格,因為附會以唐代樂官雷海青的故事,才變成梨園祖師爺的行業神。田都元帥相關的傳說和記載,說明它們可能是因為民間口傳和文傳兩種傳統交織出的豐富內容。
田都元帥的造像有一特色,臉部常繪有一隻毛蟹,其由來一說是他小時候因為是棄嬰,由螃蟹養大。一說是曾因醉臥宮廷,被楊貴妃畫了一隻蟹在臉上。因此,其信奉者也就不吃蟹,也不供奉以螃蟹。因此,有些信仰者還因為學習樂器面臨瓶頸不得突破,即向田都元帥發誓不再吃蟹以償其願。
台灣各地包括臺北市、基隆、鹿港、臺南安定、南鯤鯓與宜蘭等地方都建有田都元帥的宇。其中臺南安定靜安宮建於康熙五十五年(1716年),鹿港的玉渠宮,建於乾隆三十年(1765)。臺北華紫來宮則於毀壞後,其田都元帥轉而陪祀於「艋舺地藏庵」。目前台灣除了北部的傀儡戲班外,其它各類戲班甚至是宋江陣都以田都元帥為守護神和職業神。台灣的宋江陣以田都元帥為主神,據說是宋江與相公的發音甚為接近,代代相傳的結果產生訛誤,就把相公爺誤解成宋江爺。因此,宋江陣出陣或收陣時都要膜拜田都元帥。田都元帥的誕辰記有農曆 6月11日,也有6月24日、8月23日等種種不同說法。信仰者若要祈求才藝精進,據說需擇8月23日進行一連三天的祭儀。




彰化縣鹿港鎮玉渠宮田都元帥(陳美華攝)


新北市瑞芳區碧雲宮田都元帥(陳美華攝)

 
關鍵詞:田都元師、雷海青、宋江陣、風火院田元帥
 
考書目
  1. 徐亞湘。1993。〈臺灣地區戲神:田都元帥與西秦王爺之研究〉。台北:私立中國文化大學藝術研究所碩士論文。
  2. 高賢治。1988。〈現存華被遣忘的北管戲神:西秦王爺與田都元帥 〉。《臺灣風物》,38 ( 3 ):111-125。
  3. 陳慧蓉。1989.12。〈臺灣民間的戲神--田都元帥和西秦王爺〉。《臺灣博物》,8(4):54-57。
  4. 鄭正浩。1983.05。〈樂神一考:臺灣的田都元帥與西秦王爺信仰〉《民俗曲藝》,23/24:118-140。
  5. 楊榕。 2000 。〈莆田市瑞雲祖之田公信仰、祭儀與戲劇〉。《民俗曲藝》,121/23 : 7-100。

Tiandou yuanshuai, the marshal Tiandou, is also called Tian xiang gong (田相公). Tiandou yuanshuai is the Muse of China. However, Tiandou yuanshuai is a god not a goddess. It is said that Tiandou yuanshuai is Lei Haiqing (雷海青), an official in Tang dynasty who administed the band and opera in the court. Lei Haiqing’s mother was a virgin pregnant woman. She was impregnate by a god of star, Yixiu xingjun (翼宿星君) . However, a woman yet married but pregnant was a shame in ancient society. He was born in the field in order to hide this secret. As a result, he was adoped by a farmer. When Lei Haiqing was a kid, he had talent on music and opera and got reputation. He was selected to the court to serve the royal house. It was in Tang Xuanzong’s (唐玄宗) reign. Then the An Shi Rebellion (安史之亂, 755-763) took place. Lei Haiqing was loyal to Tang court and did not want to serve for An Lushan. He got killed by the rebellion. After the Tang court was recovered, the emperor decreeded the title Tianxia Liyuan dazongguan (天下梨園大總管), the first chief of band and opera in China, to him. There is still one problem. How did his title Tiandou yuanshuai come? After he was dead, it seemed that his spirit had been manifested when the Tang royal house met some crises. Once his spirist showed off, the charater Lei (雷) on his flag was covered by cloud. Only the lower part was seen by the emperor. The emperor took Tian (田), the lower half of Lei (雷), as his surname. Then he was titled as Tiandou yuanshuai.
Regarding to the literature Sanjiao soushen daquan (三教源流搜神大全) , some scholars thought that Tiandou yuanshuai originated from a Daoist deity, Fenghuoyuan Tian yuanshuai (風火院田元帥), the Marshal Tian in the Wind and Fire department. Fenghuoyuan Tian yuanshuai was also a god who administrates the affair about medical, dancing, music, opera and drama. Maybe the life story of Lei Haiqing was attached to his.
Above all, maybe the story of Lei Haiqing and the description of Fenghuoyuan Tian yuanshuai are all parts of Tiandou yuanshuai’s origin. What we know taday is a mixed entity.
There is a characteristic of Tiandou yuanshuai’s image. There is crab painted on his mouth. It is said that he was raised by crab. Another story is about Yang Guifei (楊貴妃, 719-756), the beloved consort of Emperor Tang Xuanzong. It is said that once Lei Haiqing was drunk in the court. Yang Guifei drew a crab on his face jokingly. As a result, the taboo of Tiandou yuanshuai’s devotees is banned on eating crab or taking the crad as the offering to Tiandou yuanshuai. It is said that if someone is in the bottleneck of learning Chinese music instruement, vows not to eat crab before the image of Tiandou yuanshuai will be helpful.
There are some temples dedicated to Tiandou yuanshuai in Taiwan. The first one, Jingan temple (靜安宮) in Tainan was established in 1716. Tiandou yuanshuai’s birthday is on twenty-third, June in Chinese lunar calendar.
 
Keywords: the marshal Tiandou, Lei Haiqing, the Marshal Tian in the Wind and Fire department
 
References:
  1. 徐亞湘。1993。〈臺灣地區戲神:田都元帥與西秦王爺之研究〉。台北:私立中國文化大學藝術研究所碩士論文。
  2. 高賢治。1988。〈現存華被遣忘的北管戲神:西秦王爺與田都元帥 〉。《臺灣風物》,38 ( 3 ):111-125。
  3. 陳慧蓉。1989.12。〈臺灣民間的戲神--田都元帥和西秦王爺〉。《臺灣博物》,8(4):54-57。
  4. 鄭正浩。1983.05。〈樂神一考:臺灣的田都元帥與西秦王爺信仰〉《民俗曲藝》,23/24:118-140。
  5. 楊榕。 2000 。〈莆田市瑞雲祖之田公信仰、祭儀與戲劇〉。《民俗曲藝》,121/23 : 7-100。
返回列表