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臺北市大同區保安宮保生大帝(陳美華攝)
 
保生大帝是臺灣民間崇拜的醫藥神,也是泉州同安縣移民的鄉土神。保生大帝姓吳名夲(音 tao),又有吳真人、吳真君、花橋公等稱呼,俗稱大道公。祖籍福建安溪石門,生於西元 979 年(宋太平興國 4 年) 3 月 15 日,飛昇(卒)於 1 036 年(宋景佑 3 年) 5 月 2 日。據說保生大帝自幼即非常聰穎,能過目不忘,且在醫藥方面相當有天賦,終生茹素未娶。曾擔任官員,後來跟隨仙人學道,煉丹濟世。保生大帝生前活動地點主要在同安白礁、青礁、安溪石門等地,這些地方均築有宇奉祀。相傳保生大帝精通醫術且曾在中國福建省同安縣花橋義診,因此有花橋公之名。宋代以來,歷皆對保生大帝有數次加封,重要的封號有二,其一是於宋孝宗乾道年間敕封為「大道真人」,二是明仁宗洪熙年間敕封「恩主昊天金闕御史慈濟醫靈妙道真君壽無極保生大帝」。
        保生大帝有一些相關的傳說,他的座騎是隻老虎,民間稱牠為黑虎將軍,本來是吃人的老虎,有一次因為吃了一名婦人,婦人的髮釵卡在牠的喉中,老虎於是向保生大帝求助。經保生大帝救護後,從此不再傷害生靈,並成為保生大帝的座騎。此外,臺灣民間還流傳有保生大帝分別和玄天上帝、媽祖之間的通俗故事,但這類故事多半較近於戲謔之間,對於神祗並無敬意。
奉祀保生大帝的宇,大多還供奉有中元帥、溫康馬趙四大元帥、江仙官、張聖者、三十六官將、黑虎將軍等神祇,均被視為護法或部將 · 由於保生大帝乃醫藥神,因而宇中都設有藥,以供信徒卜求。
全臺灣以保生大帝為主祀神的宇約三百多座,多集中在臺南、高雄。最早的是臺南新化的保生大帝宮,可能始於荷蘭人時,分靈最多者以臺南學甲慈濟宮。知名者,北部以臺北市大龍峒保安宮最著名,每年舉辦保生文化祭,是臺灣重要的民俗藝術活動;南部以臺南縣學甲慈濟宮最馳名,所舉辦「上白礁」是南部保生大帝信仰中,重要的宗教盛事之一,內的葉王交趾陶更是重要文物。
民間也有不具宇而採用輪祀的保生大帝,例如臺北淡水、三芝九角頭保生大帝;也有以單一姓氏為主的臺北西河林姓十一角頭保生大帝、臺北吳姓六角頭保生大帝,信仰模式均為鄰近地區的同姓人士劃分地域以輪流祭拜保生大帝。




臺南市中西區開山宮大道公(林益生攝)
 
中文關鍵字:醫藥神,同安,慈濟宮,保安宮,上白礁
 
考資料
  1. 林美容。 2005 。〈臺灣保生大帝信仰及其宇相關書目>” 《 臺灣文獻 》 , 56 ( 2 > : 15 手 1 78 。南投:國史館臺灣文獻館。
  2. 范正義。2006 。《 保生大帝信仰與間臺社會 》 ”「臺海研究叢書」。福州:福建人民“
  3. 辜神徹。 2006 。 〈 臺北盆地與姓氏相關的輪祀組織研究>”《臺灣文獻》 , 57 ( 3 > : 38 一 94 ”南投:國史館臺灣文獻館”
  4. 戴寶村。 1 999 。 〈 淡水、三芝地區的大道公信仰>。 《 臺北縣立文中心季刊 》 , 59 : 18 一 31 。臺北:臺北縣立文化中心”
  5. 維基百科 0 2009 年 5 月 20 日讀取 0 http : llZh . wikipedia . orglwikil % E4 % BF % gD % E7 % 94 % gF % ES % A4 % A7 % ES % BS % gD 。
  6. 大龍峒保安宮網站 0 2009 年 5 月 20 日讀取 www . paoan . org . tw。


Baosheng Emperor(保生大帝) is Wu Tao(吳夲) (979-1036). He is also called Wu Zhenren (吳真人), Wu Zhenjun (吳真君), Huaqiao gong (花橋公), etc. He was born on the 15th day of the third moon in Chinese lunar calendar and dead or ascended to heaven on the second day of the fifth month in Chinese calendar. It was said that he was born as a smart child. He had a good memory and talent on traditional Chinese medicine. He was an official for a while. Finally, he was a famous doctor and helped many suffering persons. The major area where he was a practicioner doctor were in Baijiao (白礁), Qingjiao (青礁), Shimen (石門), in Tongan (同安) and Anxi (安溪) county, Fujian province. He kept unmarried and as a vegetarian all his lifetime. As a famous doctor with many miracles, he was worshiped by people and had a temple dedicated to him. He was titled as Dadao zhenren (大道真人) in Song dynasty. In Ming dynasty, Chengzu decreed that he was titled of “Imperial Inspector at Heavenly Gate, Miracle Doctor of Compassion Relief, Great Taoist Immortal, and the Long-lived, Unbounded, Life-guarding Emperor” (恩主昊天金闕御史慈濟醫靈妙道真君壽無極保生大帝).
During his lifetime, Baosheng Emperor (Dadi) was known to have some miracles. For instance, he had been cured a tiger. The tiger ate many humen. The last time it ate a woman and its throat was wedged by her hairpin. Then the tiger ask help to Baosheng Emperor. Baosheng Emperor helped him and forbidded him to eat any living thing. The tiger then became his mount named Heihu jiangjun (黑虎將軍), the Black Tiger Marshal. Besides of the Black Tiger Marshal, Baosheng Emperor had other marshals as his subordinates. The squad of his marshal are including the four major marshals with surname Wen, Kang, Ma and Zhao individually, Divine Officer Jiang (江仙官), The Saint Zhang (張聖者) and The Thirty-six marshals.
        It is estimated about three hundreds temples dedicated to Baosheng Emperor in Taiwan. Most of them are in Tainan, Gaoxiong. The first temple was established in Xinhua (新化) , Tainan during the reign of Netherlands. Most of the temples stemed from Ciji temple (慈濟宮) in Xuejia, Tainan that is also famous in southern Taiwan. In northern Taiwan, Baoan temple in Taipei is the most famous. For Baoan temple’s successfully restoring constructions, it won The UNESCO Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards for Culture Conservation. There are also some worship associations (神明會) dedicated to Baosheng Emperor who do not belongs to any temples.
 
 
Keywords: god of medicine, Tongan County , Ciji Temple , Baoan Temple
 
考資料
    1. 林美容。 2005 。〈臺灣保生大帝信仰及其宇相關書目>” 《 臺灣文獻 》 , 56 ( 2 > : 15 手 1 78 。南投:國史館臺灣文獻館。
    2. 范正義。2006 。《 保生大帝信仰與間臺社會 》 ”「臺海研究叢書」。福州:福建人民“
    3. 辜神徹。 2006 。 〈 臺北盆地與姓氏相關的輪祀組織研究>”《臺灣文獻》 , 57 ( 3 > : 38 一 94 ”南投:國史館臺灣文獻館”
    4. 戴寶村。 1 999 。 〈 淡水、三芝地區的大道公信仰>。 《 臺北縣立文中心季刊 》 , 59 : 18 一 31 。臺北:臺北縣立文化中心”
    5. 維基百科 0 2009 年 5 月 20 日讀取 0 http : llZh . wikipedia . orglwikil % E4 % BF % gD % E7 % 94 % gF % ES % A4 % A7 % ES % BS % gD 。
    6. 大龍峒保安宮網站 0 2009 年 5 月 20 日讀取 www . paoan . org . tw。
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