:::
全國宗教資訊網
 宗教知識+
宗教知識家
財神爺 (Cai shen ye)
::: 財神爺 (Cai shen ye)
* 首頁 > 宗教知識+ > 宗教神祇 > 財神爺 (Cai shen ye)
*
0分
分享圖示
分享
勘誤圖示
勘誤

雲林縣北港鎮武德宮開基北路武財公(蕭翔文攝)
 
財神爺即財神,是指職掌每個人所享有的財富、利益等的神祇,按照這個職務分類,財神其實應該是個集合而非特定神祇。財神的分類又有多種分法,可分為正財神、偏財神等,這是一般人較熟悉的分類。另外可從財神本身的屬性,例如人格神、星神等來區分,此種分類則為少數人採用。正財神下又分有武財神、文財神等。至於其它各式各樣的財神,例如五路財神,甚至是土地公等等,大致上都能歸入偏財神。正財神多為歷史與傳說結合的人物,分佈在較廣的地區。例如武財神包括趙公明、關聖帝君、還有佛教裡的北方多聞天王等等。文財神則是比干、范蠡。偏財神多半介乎鬼神之間,隨各地區的流行不同,則有不同的財神。
        趙公明原本是瘟神,在東晉的《搜神記》裡是一名天將,負責到人間索命,在六的《真誥》是司五方氣的神祗,到元明之後已是瘟神兼財神,《封神演義》裡,趙公明是迎祥納福,追捕逃亡。《搜神廣記》裡,趙公明是在人們買賣求財時,能使人們各得所需。至於關公成為財神,應該是人們祀奉關公既久,又經歷佛道教的競相收編為屬下神祗,再加上清代推廣追封,使關公信仰大為普及,自然成為人們普遍祈求的對象,因此成為財神(關公信仰可考關聖帝君詞條)。比干成為財神,據說是因為他無心,不會有所偏私,買賣才會公道。范蠡本是越王句踐的大臣,因為善於觀人,知道越王復國成功後將不會善待大臣,所以越王復國後他就離開越王,到民間創業。因為他懂得了解商情,觀察趨勢,不論從事那種買賣都能很快的累積財富,所以被奉為財神。
至於偏財神,經常與神祗的道德功績較無關聯,而是因為有些人自身的靈驗經驗,造成一時流行的風尚。這類神祗流行的時間短則一兩個月,常則數年乃至數十年乃至百千年,例如宋代的五通神。台灣有好幾處知名的土地公,也以財神聞名,例如南投紫雲巖,台北中和的烘爐地;或是各地都能見到的五路財神。至於台北知名的四面佛,還有到處都能見到商家擺設的彌勒佛也是財神,他們則難以歸類。四面佛源於泰國,近年來才傳入台灣。彌勒佛因為大肚能容,廣結善緣的形象,普及全台灣。上述不同的財神之間並沒高低位階,或是何種分工,純粹依照信仰者基於個人的靈驗程度,或是透過人際網路的關係與財神產生聯結。財神相關的實踐方式除了上、供以食物、點燈外,也有所謂的向神明換發財金、借發財金等等,還有其它的以特定的供品、紙錢,儀式等,俗稱補財庫的種種方式。
 
關鍵詞:財神爺、正財神、偏財神、趙公明
 
考書目
呂威。1996。《財神信仰》。台北:漢揚。


Cai shen ye (財神爺)is called Cai shen (財神) also. Cai shen, the Chinese god of prosperity, according to its function, is a category or a set of god rather than a specific god. The function of Cai shen is deciding everyone’s fortunate and interest in one’s destiny. There are various kinds of Cai shen’s classification. The most general one is Zheng Cai shen (正財神) and Pian Cai shen (偏財神). Most often, ‘Zheng’ (正) in Chinese means correct, or right in the middle and ‘Pian’ (偏) means stray from the right. In Cai shen’s case, Zheng’s meaning is closed to static. On the contrary, Pian means random, opportunity or chance. In other words, Zheng Cai shen blesses people’s fortunate according to ones destiny. Pian Cai shen provides some chance or speed up people to get wealth. Under the Zheng Cai shen class, there are two branches, one is Wu Cai shen (武財神), another is wen Cai shen (文財神). In Chinese, wu means martial or of the martial art and wen means literate or gentle. Wu Cai shen are Zhao Gongming (趙公明), Guan Yu (關羽, 162–219), and Duowen tianwang (多聞天王: Vaiśravaṇa ). Under Wen Cai shen’s class, there are Fan Li (范蠡), Bi Gan (比干). Unlike Zheng Cai shen, most of the pian Cai shen are between the ghost and divine spirit figure.
        Zhao Gongming is well known as a Cai shen, however, he was a god of plague also. As a divine general, he was responsible to come to earth to take people’s lives in Jin dynasty (晉). Until Yuan dynasty, he became a Cai shen. Guan Yu is a genuine historical figure who was a general before. He was serving under the warlord Liu Bei (劉備, 161-223) during the Three Kingdoms era of China. The reason why Guan Yu became Cai shen is not clear. Maybe he was deified pretty early and popular. When the belief on Guan Yu became popular, people worship to him to pray for fortune more frequently and made Guan Yu become Cai shen naturally. Bi Gan was his nephew King Zhou of Shang’s (商王紂) minister, however, he was executed by King Zhou and pulled out his heart crucially. Because he has no heart anymore, people believe that he will be fair in making judge of trades as a god. Then he became Cai shen also. Fan Li was a minister of the state Yue (越國) in the Spring and Autumn Period. After he assisted the king of Yue recovered the state, he escaped from the court of Yue for good. Because Fan Li anticipated that the king of Yue would execute the state men who helped him after he got his kingdom back. Fan Li was success in running business. Each time he ran a new business, the business began to expand and to be successful. Since he is a talent in anticipated the business trend, businessman worship him as a Cai shen.
        Most of the pian Cai shen are not a person with a great achievement or as a moral role model before he was deified. There are various versions of pian cai she. For example, Wutung (五通), is a Cai shen flourishing from Song dynasty up to now. He was original a mountain god though. Wu lu Cai shen is a set of Cai shen which is included Zhao Gongming and his four subordinator captain. They are original as the Taoist divine generals.
Recently, Wu lu Cai shen is very popular in Taiwan now. Maybe it is because the economic crisis happened some other times and social life becomes more commercialization. There are also many famous Tudi gongs (土地公) regarded as Cai shen also. For example, around Zhonghe (中和), Taipei county, there is a temple named Hongludi (烘爐地) , a well known Cai shen temple. In Nantou county (南投縣), a temple named Zinan gong (紫南宮) is another famous Tudi gong. It is so popular that can raise fund for the public schools neighbored to it, providing the free lunch to the pupils of the schools.
Besides, almost everywhere it is easy to find the statue of Maitray. Maitreay is also regarded as a Cai shen. In Taipei, there is also a Thai-Indo god regarded as a Cai shen. It is Simian fo (四面佛), Phra Phrom. Phra Phrom is original the Indo god Bhrama which is in Thai fashion represented as a four faces statue with four faces.
People often offer flowers, candles, or foods to Cai shen. A special practice is invented by people in Taiwan. The practice is that people change with or borrow from temple and god the money. It is said that the money got from temple is blessed by Cai shen. People believe the money can make them be in luck. It is a popular practice in Taiwan now.
 
Keywords: Cai shen ye, Zhao Gongming, Zheng Cai shen, Pian Cai shen
 
References:
呂威。1996。《財神信仰》。台北:漢揚。
返回列表