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南投國姓禪機山仙佛寺王禪老祖像(禪機山仙佛寺提供/曾文豐攝)

鬼谷先師即鬼谷子,是歷史與傳說人物,他是一位隱者,據說曾追隨老子修道並西出函谷關,後來再回到中國隱居鬼谷,於是以鬼谷為姓。有一說是他姓王,名詡,是晉平公時人,隱居嵩陽鬼谷,因為入雲夢山採藥得長生,童顏鶴髮。蘇泰、張儀是他的學生,他認為兩人世俗之心未了,預言他們修道不會有成就,但是在六國可得到六國相位,只可惜不得善終,後果如其預言。鬼谷子還有另外兩位知名的學生,即孫臏、龐涓,他們兩人則傳承了兵法,因為龐涓私心陷害孫臏,斷其兩足,兩人後來同門相殘。綜合這些傳說,鬼谷子可能是先秦時以黃老之術度世的人。此外,秦始皇遣徐福入海求長生不死藥的故事也與之附會。據說秦始皇宮中,因為興工勞役,有許多枉死者,有鳥銜來了某種草,覆蓋在這些死者的臉上,他們竟復活了。於是秦始皇派使者拿了這些草去請教鬼谷子,鬼谷子告訴秦始皇,這種令人長生不死的草又叫養神芝,它的葉子類似茭白筍苗,每叢生一株,一株可令一人復活或長生。養神芝來自東海上的福州,生長在瓊田內,瓊田可能是玉田或是一種比喻,表示它是神仙之境的田地。於是秦始皇派遣徐福領童男女入海求藥,結果一去不回。據說鬼谷子也得長生不死藥,成仙得道住在太白山或華山。在《洞玄靈寳真靈位業圖》裡,他的位置是玉清三元宮的左位。
道藏裡,有些法術或修道成仙的方法也以他為名,例如「鬼谷子胎息訣」、「召鬼印」等,還有多種符咒、占卜術等。鬼谷先師在台灣又名「王禪祖師」、「王禪老祖」。台北市有「鬼谷先師紀念堂」以之為主祀神,鬼谷先生是占卜業的職業神。
 
關鍵詞:鬼谷仙師、鬼谷子、王禪祖師
 
考書目
  1. 《歷世真仙體道通鑑》
  2. 《錄異記》

Guigu Xianshi (鬼谷先師) is also called Guiguzi (鬼谷子), known as a mystical thinker of the Spring and Autumn period. It is said that he was a hermit who was a disciple of Laozi. He lived at ghost vally, Guigu, so he was named Guiguzi. His surname actually is Wang (王) and name Xu (詡) in Jin (晉) state. He had been to Mountain Yun Meng (雲夢山), and got the medicine which could last a person’s live forever. He is regarded as a Daoist divine immortal.
Guigu Xianshi had four famous disciples. Su Qin (蘇秦) and Zhang Yi (張儀) were his disciples before they became the prime minister of Yan (燕) and Qin (秦). Guiguzi predicated that they were ambitious of profane carrier and not suitable to cultivated themselves to Dao. However, they would become the Prime Minister in any state of the six in the Warring state period. As the predication, both of them became a prime minister eventually. There were other famous disciples among Guiguzi’s . They are Sun Bin (孫臏) and Pang Juan (龐涓). Sun and Pang learned the warcraft from Guigu Xianshi and became excellent general in Wei (魏) and Qi (齊) separately. However, Pang had been trap Sun in Wei state because of his jealous of Sun’s talent on warcraft. He accused Sun falsely and made his feet cut as punishment by King of Wei. As a result, Sun fled to Qi state and became a general. Finally, Sun defeated Pang and made him committed suicide.
Summing up above legends about Guigu Xianshi, Guigu Xianshi is supposed to be a fangshi (方士) alike figure who is specialized in the teaching of Huang Di and Laozi which is the prototype of philosophical Daoism.
Another famous story is also in relation of Guigu Xianshi. It is said that Qin shi huang (秦始皇), the first emperor who unified China, enslaved people to construct a grand palace for him. However, the construction work was so heavy and many people died. Some birds held a magical herb with the mouth and put them on the dead bodies’ face. Those dead person surprisingly got rebirth. Then Qin shi huang sent messenger to ask Guigu Xianshi about what the magical herbal is. Guigu Xianshi told Qin shi huang that the herb is Yang-shen zhi (養神芝), the ganoderma named Yang-shen. It was grown on an island, Fu zhou (福洲) , at East China Sea. In order to last his life and empire forever, Qin shi huang dispatched Xu Fu (徐福) to get the herb back. However, Xu Fu never came back and Qin shi huang was dead. Only Guigu Xianshi got the herb and became a Daoist immortal. It is said that he lived in Hua shan (華山), Mountain Hua. Guigu Xianshi is also enlisted in Tao Hongjing’s Zhenling weiye tu (真靈位業圖). In other words, Guigu Xianshi is regarded as an important immortal in Daoist pantheon.
In Taiwan, there is only one temple dedicated to Guigu Xianshi which is named the Memorial hall of Guigu Xianshi. Guigu Xianshi is also regarded as the trade god of diviner or fortune-teller.
 
Keywords: Guigu Xianshi, Guiguzi
 
References:
  1. 《歷世真仙體道通鑑》
  2. 《錄異記》
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