:::
全國宗教資訊網
 宗教知識+
宗教知識家
張天師(Zhang tianshi)
::: 張天師(Zhang tianshi)
* 首頁 > 宗教知識+ > 宗教神祇 > 張天師(Zhang tianshi)
*
0分
分享圖示
分享
勘誤圖示
勘誤

臺南市中西區天天公天師(陳美華攝)
天師張道陵(34-165)及其傳嗣,至今為65代。又稱張仙君、天師爺、南大帝、真天師、張仙公、張府天師天師公。後世稱張道陵為「(祖)天師」,其子張衡為「嗣師」,其孫張魯為「系師」,張氏三代傳承合稱「三師」或「三張」。天師的傳承由子孫世襲,歷代皆稱為「天師」,因為姓張,即稱為「張天師」。
張道陵,字輔漢,東漢沛國豐縣人(今江蘇豐縣),據說他是張良的八世孫,曾任巴郡江州令。後來捨棄仕途,於北邙山專心修道,廷數次召他為博士皆不就,他在鶴鳴山創建五斗米道,自稱太上老君傳授他三天正法,命他為天師,是「三天法師正一真人」,造有道書24篇,撰寫《老子想爾注》,設置了最早的道教教團,即二十四治,最後在青城山得老君傳授道法成仙。其後道法傳子張衡,孫張魯,後歸曹操。傳說四代孫張盛因為不願受曹操所授之都亭候爵位,潛逃到龍虎山修道,傳承其法至今,因此現今張天師傳承以龍虎山為本山。
天師的傳承本不顯著,其道法只是各種道法之一。直到五代至宋之間,因為受官方的優遇而有相當的發展,在洪邁所著《夷堅志》裡,載有數則掃除妖異的故事與張天師有關,顯見民間有相當的信仰者。「天師」的稱號自元世祖忽必烈開始為官方認可,自此張天師開始領有江南道教,後來各種符籙道派集合形成正一道,或正一派,和全真派是道教的兩大派別。張天師的傳承以符籙為主,《三教源流搜神大全》記載張天師掌握符籙這類與鬼神溝通的秘密文書方式。因此道士能夠通神變化,有驅除妖鬼的能力。
臺灣民間的張天師信仰始於清領時,最早是隨著火居道士的醮儀活動傳入。隨著道士的發展,民眾熟悉張天師信仰,到1919年時的統計,台灣有8座寺以張天師為主祀神,並有神明會,也有民眾以張天師的畫像或符來辟邪。二次戰後第63代張天師隨國民政府避難台灣,此後張天師的信仰有部分即和道教會以及政治上的發展有密切的關係。然而,戰後台灣除了加入天師的傳嗣外,張天師的信仰仍保有始於戰前的兩條脈絡,一是正一派的道士,以龍虎山為其宗,在各地或由子嗣或由人際網絡,傳承始自清季以降之道法。另有宇以張天師之降乩為傳承者,張天師透過乩身傳授符咒、藥以救世度人,延續張天師信仰。估計目前臺灣約有十多座左右以張天師為主祀神的,且有相當的歷史,例如臺中縣神岡的清宮,是乾隆五十四年興建。或是建於康熙五十七年的彰化北斗天師、彰化埔鹽龍水宮等等。此外,也有戰後方才修建的宇,如南投國姓的嗣漢天師府、花蓮溪口雲台山正一天師宮、三重廣熙宮等等。
 
關鍵詞:張天師張道陵、正一派、符籙
 
考書目
  1. 《歷世真仙體道通鑑》
  2. 王見川。2003。〈張天師研究序說:成果回顧與相關史料辨正〉。《臺灣宗教研究通訊》,5:165-206。
  3. 王見川。2004。〈龍虎山張天師的興起與其在宋代的發展〉。《光武通識學報》,1:243-283。
  4. 王見川。2003。《張天師之研究:以龍虎山一系為考察中心》嘉義:中正大學歷史所博士論文。


Zhang tianshi (張天師), the celestial master Zhang, represents Zhang Daoling (34-165) and his inheritages. Zhang Daoling was one of the founders of religious Daoism in Han dynasty. His inheritages now is the sixty fifth generation.
Before Zhang Daoling became a Daoist, he was an official scholar. He had been the chief in Jiangzhou (江州). It is said that he was a descendent grandson of Zhang Liang (張良). Zhang Daoling abandoned his official carrier later. He escaped to Mountain Beimang (北邙山) and devoted himself in Daoist practices. The government failed in summoning him to be an official in central government many times. Finally, he went to Sichuan (四川) province and founded Wudoumi dao (五斗米道), an early religious Taosit school. He also claimed that Laozi descented to earth and imparted all the knowledge and skill of Daoism. Laozi also titled him as Santian fashi Zhengyi zhenren (三天法師正一真人), the master among three heavens and Orthodox Unity true man. He wrote twenty four books on Daoism and a commentary of the Laozi, named Laozi Xiang Er Zhu (老子想爾注). Early Daoist church was also founded by him. After he ascented to heaven and became immortal, his teaching was inherited by his son Zhang Lu (張魯) and grandson Zhang Heng (張衡). Zhang Lu later led his Daoist churches and disciples moved to Henan (河南) under the reign of Cao Cao (曹操) and. It is said that the fourth generation of Zhang tianshi, Zhang Sheng (張盛) did not follow Cao Cao anymore and escaped to Long Hu shan(龍虎山), Mountain Dragan and Tiger in Jiangxi (江西). Zhang tianshi’s school and teaching dwelled in there from that time until 1949.
At the beginning, Zhang tianshi’s school is one of various Daoist school in Chinese religion. Until Five dynasties and Song dynasty, Zhang tianshi started to flourish and became the icon of Daoism. It was because of the royal house’s supporting. In the Yijian zhi (夷堅志), written by Hong Mai (洪邁), there are numbers of stories about Zhang tianshi. Zhang tianshi as an exorcist was presented in the stories. It is crediable that there were some devotees at that time. The title Zhang tianshi was not official recognized until Yuan dynasty. Then the descendents of Zhang Daoling becaming the official chief of Daoist group in Jiangnan (江南). As a result, the legacy of Zhang tianshi was mixed with other school and became the Zhengyi school (正一道), one of two major Daoist schools.
In Taiwan, the belief of Zhang tianshi started from Qing dynasty. Some Zhengyi Daoist held ritual in Taiwan and made it spread. In 1919, it was estimated about eight temples dedicated to Zhang tianshi. People also took the imgae or talisman of Zhang tianshi as a protection to devil. After the Second World War, the sixty-third generation of Zhang tianshi moved to Taiwan and became the official representation of Daoism in Taiwan. Then the belief of Zhang tianshi was in relation with government. However, the legacy of Zhang tianshi still keeps the connetion with those Daoists whose surname is not Zhang, those Zhengyi school Daoists. Besides, there are also some temples dedicated to Zhang tianshi by mediumship. Summarily, there are about over ten temples dedicated to Zhang tianshi in Taiwan now.
 
Keywords: the celestial master Zhang, Zhang tianshi, Zhang Daoling, Zhengyi school
 
References:
  1. 《歷世真仙體道通鑑》
  2. 王見川。2003。〈張天師研究序說:成果回顧與相關史料辨正〉。《臺灣宗教研究通訊》,5:165-206。
  3. 王見川。2004。〈龍虎山張天師的興起與其在宋代的發展〉。《光武通識學報》,1:243-283。
  4. 王見川。2003。《張天師之研究:以龍虎山一系為考察中心》嘉義:中正大學歷史所博士論文。
返回列表