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嘉義縣大林鎮安霞宮開漳聖王(龔俊丞攝)

開漳聖王是漳州人的守護神,姓陳名元光,又叫陳光華,字廷炬,原是河南光州人,父陳政,是唐高宗時的議大夫,總章二年(669年)時,唐高宗為了加強閩南地區的統治管理,命陳政率兵三千多人入閩,陳元光於隨行出征,當時的將士都帶同妻子家屬前往,似乎是為移民而有的軍事行動。歷經幾場和當地少數民族的戰役後,陳家在火田村定居,但是陳政的兩位兄長都在浙江一帶的戰役中陣亡,有許多親戚也喪生。儀鳳二年(677年)陳政過世,陳元光代理父職繼續治理閩粵。由於平定多次少數民族和地方的反抗活動,陳元光也多次由廷晉昇,並按其提議規劃行政區以治理當地。陳元光結合軍政和民政,一方面開拓當地的經濟,一方面也維護當地的治安,並施以教育,漳州在他的經營管理下逐漸開發。唐中宗景龍二年(708年),陳元光因平亂陣亡,前後陳元光共治理漳州二十多年。天寶元年(742年)其子陳酆、孫陳謨又任漳州刺史數十年至貞元二年(786年),前後近百年時間陳氏治理和開拓閩南。由於陳元光與其部將有功於閩南,閩南各地皆立以祭祀陳元光,並被封為「威惠聖王」,成為當地的守護神,漳州地方陳氏族裔並奉為始祖。開漳聖王還有其它稱號,例如:威惠聖王、聖王公、威烈候、陳聖王、陳聖公和陳將軍、陳府將軍等稱呼,亦有省稱為聖王。
由於開漳聖王是漳州人的守護神,台灣的開漳聖王也和早漳州移民的分佈有關,例如宜蘭地區有許多漳州移民,當地估計有二十座的開漳聖王。臺北縣市較著名者有內湖碧山岩的開漳聖王、士林的惠濟宮、中和廣濟宮、基隆的奠濟宮等。其它如桃園、嘉義等許多地方也都有建有開漳聖王。台北市內湖碧山巖據說是全台灣最大的開漳聖王,清時由於一位黃姓人士於此地遺留下一火袋,它是從漳州帶回來的。某日當地盜匪橫起,開漳聖王和祂的兩位陪祀將軍,李將軍、馬將軍顯靈,打敗盜匪,拯救當地居民。居民感念開漳聖王顯靈保祐,於是興建宇奉祀。另者知名夜市基隆口,其即為開漳聖王
 
關鍵詞:開漳聖王、威惠聖王、聖王公、威烈候、陳聖王、陳聖公、漳州
 
考書目
  1. 俞兆鵬。1998。〈開漳聖王--陳元光的生平事蹟〉。《歷史月刊》,127:96-100。
  2. 姚漢秋。1979。〈開漳聖王考〉。《中原文獻》,11(12):6-9。
  3. 徐麗霞。199910。〈開漳聖王與臺北縣板橋、中和開漳聖王信仰〉。《中國語文》,85(4): 104-113。


Kaizhang Shengwang (開漳聖王) is the parton god of Zhangzhou (漳州), a county in Fujian province. His name was Chen Yuanguang (陳元光) the son of Chen Zheng (陳政), original as chaoyi daifu (議大夫), a senior official in Tang dynasty. In 669, he was dispatched by Tang Gao Zong (唐高宗) to reclaim Minnan (閩南), the southern part of Fujian province. Chen Zheng led his clan members and family including Chen Yuanguang and three thousand soliders to accomplish this emigrant mission. After they had some fierce battles with the natives in Zhejiang (浙江) , Chen Yuanguang lost his two elder brothers and some other relatives. Finally, they settled at Huotian village (火田村), a village near Zhangzhou. In 677, Chen Zheng was dead. His position was succeeded by Chen Yuanguang. During his administration, he had suppressed times of local rebellion. He also set schools, police system and maped out the administrative division. As a result, Zhangzhou was prosperity. In 708, Chen Yuanguang was dead in a battle. His administration was ended. However, his son and grandson succeeded his duty. There were almost one hundred years that Zhangzhou was under the clan Chen’s reign.
Because of Chen Yuanguang and his marshals’s merit, people established many temples dedicated to them as memorial shrine. Chen Yuanguang was also ecreeded the title Weihui shengwang (威惠聖王) by government. As a result, the worship of Chen Yuanguang is spread.
In Taiwan, the spread of Kaizhang Shengwang’s temple is also in relation to the migrants of Zhangzhou. It is estimated about twenty temples of Kaizhang Shengwang in Yilan (宜蘭)county where early migrants from Zhangzhou majorly settled. Besides, there are many famous temples of Kaizhang Shengwang located in elsewhere. For example, the Kaizhang Shengwang temple in Neihu (內湖), the Huiji temple (惠濟宮)in Shilin (士林) and guang ji temple in Zhonghe (中和) were also the famous ones. Those areas were also majorly early migrants of Zhangzhou settled. The famous night market in Jilong (基隆)is also by the side of Kaizhang Shengwang temple (開漳聖王).
 
Keywords: Kaizhang Shengwang, Chen Yuanguang, Zhangzhou
 
References:
  1. 俞兆鵬。1998。〈開漳聖王--陳元光的生平事蹟〉。《歷史月刊》,127:96-100。
  2. 姚漢秋。1979。〈開漳聖王考〉。《中原文獻》,11(12):6-9。
  3. 徐麗霞。199910。〈開漳聖王與臺北縣板橋、中和開漳聖王信仰〉。《中國語文》,85(4): 104-113。
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