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臺南市中西區臨水夫人媽順天聖母(陳美華攝)

達摩祖師就是達摩,是梁時從印度到中國的佛教僧人,又作達磨,全名菩提達摩或菩提達磨,達摩原是印度某國王子,後入佛門出家修道,於南北時從廣州登岸,後來面見梁武帝(502-549在位),兩人似乎並不投契,於是達摩前往北方,留下一葦渡江的神異故事。達摩後來在河南的少林寺面壁長達九年,直到中國禪宗第二代祖師慧可砍下自己的手,表達追求佛法的決心之後,達摩才將他的心法傳予慧可,並傳給慧可禪宗獨有的信物,包括《楞伽經》、僧衣、鉢等等。此後禪宗在中國逐漸傳開,達摩就成為中國禪宗的初祖,印度廿八代祖師。達摩死後只留下空棺,有人在帕米爾高原上見到他只提了一隻鞋,表示他要返回印度。達摩留下了許多著作,包括《達摩論》、《破相論》、《悟性論》、《血脈論》、《達摩大師住世留形內心妙用訣》、《達磨易筋經》、《達摩一掌金等》等等。以上是一般大眾最熟悉的達摩故事,達摩的生平也被轉化為各種文化元素,構成其它的傳記故事,或是成為小說的段落、畫像、塑像中的主角。達摩也成為中國佛教武術的開創者,民間相術的源頭之一。然而,結合《洛陽伽藍記》、《續高僧傳》還有佛教大藏經等內容,達摩的生平並非如此完整而一致的記載,禪宗的故事有許多是後人憑添的,因此,越晚的記載也就越為詳盡。換言之,達摩在實際的歷史中仍是謎樣的人物。
達摩在中國的形象就是他的大眼睛,濃密的眉毛和鬍子,結合以簡單的衣著、竹木杖、構成他介乎道教仙人與佛教羅漢之間的形象。達摩在日本還發展成不倒翁,成為許願用的守護神。由於達摩是中國禪宗的第一代祖師,在以禪宗自居的佛教內,達摩是納入歷代祖師的行列中供奉。民間也有以達摩為主祀的宇,例如宜蘭的雷雄寺、台南市正德堂、花蓮吉安的天竺山金龍寺等等。
 
關鍵詞:達摩、禪宗、羅漢
 
考資料:
McRae, John R.(2003) Seeing through the zen, California. University of California Press.
張火慶。2006。《小說中的達摩及相關人物硏究》。臺北:秀威資訊科技出版。

Damo Zushi (達摩祖師), Bodhidharma, an Indio monk came to China in Liang dynasty. Before he became a Buddhist monk, he was a prince in an Indian kingdom. It is said that he had met Liang Wu Di (梁武帝, 464-549) but they had no rapport with each other. Then Bodhidharma crossed the Yellow River and headed north to Shaolin temple (少林寺), Henan province (河南). This journey left us a legend that he crossed the river on one reed. Bodhidharma meditated in a cave about nine years until a Chinese monk Hui-ke (慧可, 487-593) came to visit him. Hui-ke asked Bodhidharma to be his master but Bodhidharma refused. It is said that in order to exam Hui-ke’s determination, Bodhidharma did not accept Hui-ke as his disciple at first until he cut one of his arms. Bodhidharma imparted the core teaching of Buddhist dharma, xin fa (心法), to Hui-ke and gave him some material as pledge, such as scripture, monk’s robe and bowl. After Bodhidharma was dead, it was said that he was not dead but returned to India for good. Someone even claimed meeting him on the Pamirs and he held just one shoe in his hand. Above are the popular stories of Bodhidharma.
The pattern of Bodhidharma’s life story became an important element in Chinese cultural after Zen Buddhism was popular. As a result, Bodhidharma is not only the first patriarch of Chinese Zen Buddhism but also the founder of Buddhist martial art, Shao-lin gong fu (少林功夫) . He even becomes an inventor of palmistry. Chinese and other Asian artists regard him as an important subject matter. The process which he accepted Hui-ke as disciple even transformed into a Confucian scholar’s life story in Song dynasty. His big eyes, heavy eyebrows, beard, and wearing light rob, handing a stick are constructed as a Daoist xian-ren (仙人). His image even became tumbler doll’s image in Japan and is regarded as a mascot. Bodhidharm’s imgage is vivid in Aisa.
 Though Bodhidharm is very popular in Asia, there are few temples dedicated to Bodhidharm in Taiwan’s popular religion. In most of the Buddhist temple, there is few Bodhidharm’s image for worshiping. His name is written on a memorial tablet with the other Zen Buddhism patriarchs as a worshiping object.
 
Keywords: Bodhidharm, Zen Buddhism, patriarch of Zen
 
References:
  1. McRae, John R.(2003) Seeing through the zen, California. University of California Press.
  2. 張火慶。2006。《小說中的達摩及相關人物硏究》。臺北:秀威資訊科技出版。
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