:::
全國宗教資訊網
 宗教知識+
宗教知識家
慚愧祖師(Cankui zushi)
::: 慚愧祖師(Cankui zushi)
* 首頁 > 宗教知識+ > 宗教神祇 > 慚愧祖師(Cankui zushi)
*
0分
分享圖示
分享
勘誤圖示
勘誤

南投縣鹿谷鄉祝生慚愧祖師(陳美華攝)

慚愧祖師又稱陰那山慚愧祖師、陰那了拳、祖師公等。陰那山又作陰林山、蔭林山等等,它們都是因為陰林山一詞在台灣仰賴口傳的緣故,結果出現的變音誤記。陰那山位於閩粵交界處,是慚愧祖師的得道之處。慚愧祖師是唐時人,俗姓潘,名了拳,法號慚愧,出生在福建沙縣,約在817年出生,865年時圓寂。傳說他出生時左手拳曲不能伸張,父母於是命名為拳。當他彌月時,有名遊方僧人前來,在他的拳上寫了「了」字,拳竟然自開,是以名為「了拳」,這名遊方僧人還預言了拳日後將成為得道高僧。潘了拳的名字除了和他出生的異相有關外,也和他日後駐錫地陰那山有關,因為陰那山的別名是五指峰,其山型亦同拳開五指,是以傳記中的敘事也暗示了他的神異。
潘了拳十二歲時父母雙亡,依叔母過活,十七歲在大埔縣地為人放牧,據說他牧牛時劃地為圈,牛隻就自動在圈內活動,不敢擅自越界,把烹煮過的魚放到水裡,魚就復活了,還經常獨自一人在大石上打坐冥想。後來他又繼續流浪,到了陰那山附近依附於一黃姓人家。有一天,黃家婦人帶著他去向一位神僧求嗣,神僧和了拳似乎是舊識一般,並要黃家依止於了拳,以之為師。後來潘了拳辭別黃家,住到陰那山裡有三十年之久。他駐錫的地方也蓋了,名為靈光寺,臨終時他對弟子開示,表示自己未能如同佛祖弘法度人,甚感慚愧,他要門人謹守戒律,並自號慚愧。是以人們後世名為慚愧祖師。
慚愧祖師的信仰在臺灣主要分佈於中部地區,據2001年內政部所編之《全國寺名冊》,全台以慚愧祖師為主祀神者約在29-40座之間,分佈於嘉義、雲林、南投、彰化、台中等縣,南投縣有25座,其中又以鹿谷、中寮最多,在這些地方除了寺以外,還有設於家中的神明會,也有許多家戶立有自家奉祀的祖師公。由此觀之,稱慚愧祖師在台灣為南投地區的獨特信仰實不為過。
 
關鍵詞:慚愧祖師、潘了拳、陰那山、南投
 
 
考書目
  1. 林翠鳳。2010。〈臺灣慚愧祖師神格論〉。《東海大學圖書館訊》,109。網址(另開新視窗) :http://www.lib.thu.edu.tw/newsletter/109-201010/page07.1.htm。於2010.10點閱。
  2. 張志相。2008。〈慚愧祖師生卒年、名號與本籍考論〉。《逢甲人文社會學報》,16: 159-181。
  3. 張志相。2009。〈閩粵志書所見慚愧祖師寺與信仰探考〉。《逢甲人文社會學報》,中18:119-148。
  4. 謝佳玲。2008。〈從開山防蕃到保境安民--南投縣慚愧祖師信仰研究〉。台北:臺北大學民俗藝術研究所碩士論文。
  5. 謝佳玲。2009。〈南投縣慚愧祖師信仰的形成〉。《臺灣民俗藝術彙刊》,5:87-106。

Cankui zushi was a monk whose name was Pan Liaoquan (潘了拳). The term cankui (慚愧) means shame and conscience-stricken in Chinese. Cankui was Pan Liaoquan's fa hao (法號), the religious title in Buddhism. Cankui zushi is also called Yinna shan (陰那山) Cankui zushi. Yinna shan is the mountain where Cankui zushi lived in before.
Cankui zushi, Pan Liaoquan was born in 817, Tang dynasty and dead in 865. It is said that when he was a newborn baby, his left hand was always making fist and not opening. His parents then named him quan (拳), fist. When his age was a month, a mysterious monk came and wrote a character liao (了) on his fist. Then his left hand was not always making fist anymore. His name was changed to Liaoquan (了拳), the making fist ended. The mysterys also predictated that Liaoquan will be an honorable monk in the future.
Pan Liaoquan became an orphan when he was twelve. So he lived with his uncle and aunt. He made a living by pasturing cattles. It seems that he had magical power. The cattle which were pastured by him would stay in a circle drawn by him. The cooked fish would reborn when he put them back to the river. He often meditated on a huge rock. After he was adult, he started to roam about. Finally, he arrived at Yinna shan, Mountain Yinna. He was sheltered by the Huang’s family as a servant. One day, the madam Huang was going to a temple visiting a monk to pray for having a baby. He was following her with. Strangely, it seems that the monk knew Pan Liaoquan well. The monk asked Huang’s family taking refuge (皈依) to Pan Liaoquan and seeing him as their great master. After a while, he left to Mountain Yinna and stayed there until he was dead. Pan Liaoquan stayed at Mountain Yinna for about thirty years. He established a Buddhist temple named Ling Guang temple (靈光寺) and accepted persons as his disciples. When he was dying, he asked his disciples titled him as “cankui”. He felt ashamed on not preaching Buddhism well and sorry to Buddha. He also ordered the disciples obeying the discipline of Buddhism.
In Taiwan, it is estimated about twenty nine to forty temples dedicated to Cankui zushi. Most of them are situated in Lugu (鹿谷) and Zhongliao (中寮) in Nantou (南投) county. There are also many clans and families worshiping Cankui zushi. In Taiwan, Cankui zushi is almost a god specific to Nantou.
 
關鍵詞:慚愧祖師、潘了拳、陰那山、南投
 
Keywords: Cankui zushi, Pan Liaoquan, Yinna shan, Nantou
 
References:
  1. 林翠鳳。2010。〈臺灣慚愧祖師神格論〉。《東海大學圖書館訊》,109。網址(另開新視窗) :http://www.lib.thu.edu.tw/newsletter/109-201010/page07.1.htm。於2010.10點閱。
  2. 張志相。2008。〈慚愧祖師生卒年、名號與本籍考論〉。《逢甲人文社會學報》,16: 159-181。
  3. 張志相。2009。〈閩粵志書所見慚愧祖師寺與信仰探考〉。《逢甲人文社會學報》,中18:119-148。
  4. 謝佳玲。2008。〈從開山防蕃到保境安民--南投縣慚愧祖師信仰研究〉。台北:臺北大學民俗藝術研究所碩士論文。
  5. 謝佳玲。2009。〈南投縣慚愧祖師信仰的形成〉。《臺灣民俗藝術彙刊》,5:87-106。
返回列表