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瑤池金母(Yaochi jinmu)
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臺北市信義區松山慈惠堂瑤池金母(陳美華攝)

瑤池金母又稱為「王母娘娘」、「金母娘娘」、「金母」、「無極瑤池王母」、「西王母」、「九靈太妙龜山金母」。瑤池金母是台灣戰後很重要的民間信仰,祂的發展又和慈惠堂的發展史息息相關。討論瑤池金母的源流不能與慈惠堂的歷史分開。目前臺灣以瑤池金母為主神者是慈惠堂總堂,以王母娘娘為主祀神者是隔鄰的勝安宮,兩實為本來同一宇的信徒分出。另一方面,在慈惠堂興起之前,母娘的信仰亦流傳於教、鸞堂等民間教派之中,這類團體中的母娘也指無生老母。因此,目前有瑤池金母、王母娘娘、無生老母、西王母三者相混淆的情形,這都和臺灣民間宗教的發展史有關。
若從瑤池金母這個脈絡考察,因為王母娘娘住在瑤池,故以為名,瑤池金母也就是西王母。瑤池是西王母和周穆王傳說中的相會之處。西王母是中國本有古老的信仰,始於先秦之前,在《山海經》裡載西王母「其狀如人,豹尾虎齒而善嘯,蓬髮戴勝」,作半人半獸的形象。祂住在西邊日落之處,據說是在沙漠另一頭的荒地,因此也有研究認為西王母來自西域一帶,可能是西域某個部落的象徵或宗神。西漢末年因為社會劇變,漢哀帝以歌舞祭祀西王母,這也代表著西王母進一步向道教發展,在六的《穆天子傳》、《漢武帝內傳》及六小說中是常見的神人。此外,在漢的銅鏡、墓葬、墓券文等也都有西王母的圖像和各種記錄。在《三教搜神大全》中,西王母是九靈大妙龜山的金母,從道氣凝結而出,主極陰之氣,與東華帝君,即東王公,共治世界,養育天地物。至於慈惠堂之「母娘」之所以成為瑤池金母,則和慈惠堂加入道教會有關,瑤池金母是道教所認可的神祗,雲笈七載:上聖白玉龜臺九靈太真西王母」,是七聖之一。
另一方面,追溯慈惠堂的教義發展,慈惠堂的母娘信仰內涵如《瑤命歸盤》中三末劫、三設龍華等內容,它們又和先天道頗有淵源,這又和無生老母有關。因為在先天道的發展過程中、一度以無生老母代表最高主宰,直到道光年間才改稱瑤池金母無極天尊。而無生老母是明清興起的民間教派重要的概念,主要源於羅教,羅教創教者羅清著有《五部六冊》,其中的無生母是宇宙的創造者和保護者,結合佛教無生、真空的哲學概念,成為最高的女神,與「家鄉」結合,富有回歸宇宙起源的意味。
總合上述兩條脈絡的整理,在慈惠堂的母娘信仰者當中,根據一般信徒習於稱母娘的習慣,還有慈惠堂中跳乩、問事等儀式內容分析,瑤池金母似乎是民間的一種母神信仰,西王母對於一般信徒而言,其實是較為陌生的對象。不過,慈惠堂本身也逐漸發展各種瑤池金母、西王母相關的論述。另一方面,若從慈惠堂的瑤池金母相關善書中分析其教義,則又近於羅教、先天道、一貫道等民清以來民間教派的教義內容。由此觀之,瑤池金母的源頭並不容易確信,是以不論是瑤池金母也好、王母娘娘、無生老母也好,對於信仰者而言,追溯複雜的源流,其意義可能遠不如母娘對於信仰者本身重要和實質。
目前以瑤池金母為主祀神者,若按最主要的團體慈惠堂計算,慈惠堂在全台灣之分支依2003年的統計結果,約在900間上下。若再計入其它不同派別,廣納崇奉母娘、無生老母的宗教團體,則如瑤池金母、母娘的信仰者在台灣則有非常廣大的信仰者。

關鍵詞:瑤池金母、慈惠堂、勝安宮、王母、無生老母、西王母


臺北市信義區松山慈惠堂瑤池金母(陳美華攝)
 
考資料:
  1. 國立臺中技術學院應用中文系、苗栗後龍無極聖宮合編。2008。《海峽兩岸東王公西王母信仰學術硏討會論文集》臺中:國立臺中技術學院應用中文系。
  2. 陳立斌。2004。〈台灣慈惠堂的鸞書硏究〉台北:輔仁大學宗教學硏究所碩士論文。
  3. 蔡秀鳳。2009。〈臺灣慈惠堂瑤池金母信仰研究〉台北:國立師範大學台灣文化及語言文學研究所碩士論文。

Yaochi jinmu (瑤池金母) is an important goddess in Taiwan after the Second World War. There are two threads about Yaochi jinmu’s origin. One is about the sects of Chinese popular religions in Taiwan before the Second World War. Another one is about the government sponsors Daoist association developing after the Second World War. The propagation of the belief on Yaochi jinmu is very closed to the sect, Cihui tang (慈惠堂). When people want to make sense of Yaochi jinmu’s origin, it is hard to separate Yaochi jinmu from the developing of Cihui tang.
Before the Second World War, there are various sects of Chinese popular religion in Taiwan. One common character of these sects’ teaching is the belief on Mu niang (母娘) or Lao mu (老母)老老十大心老lao 母mu 老lao , a goddess who is benevolent and help all people. Within the belief on Mu niang, there is an eschatology originating Buddhism. This eschatology is called Sanqi mojie (三末劫). In Chinese Buddhism, jie is the word meaning the Sanskrit word kalpa. According to the eschatology, from the beginning of the universe up to now, this span can be divided to three periods. Each period is called hui (會). Lao mu will dispatch a Buddha to this world to save people on each hui. There is a term dedicated to Buddha’s saving plan. It is Zhang Tian-pan (掌天盤), steering the wheel of the universe. The first hui is Qing Yang hui (青陽會). There are nine kalpas (eon) during Qing Yang hui and the Buddha is Dīpaṃkara (燃燈佛). The second one is Hong Yang hui (紅陽會), and the dispatched Buddha is Sakyamuni. Hong Yang hui has eighteen kalpas. The third hui is Bai Yang hui (白陽會). The Buddha is Maitreya. There are eighty kalpas. It is said that the beginning of Bai Yang hui is exactly on the beginning of 20th century. However, it is suspicious because the invention of San-qi-mo-jie is in Ming dynasty. Above all, regarding to early scriptures of Ci Hui tang, San-qi-mo-jie is the dominant idea and the image of Yaochi jinmu is closed to Wuji Laomu (無極老母). It is the first thread.
        Secondly, however, after the Second World War, KMT government reigned over Taiwan and forbidden I-kuan Dao. When Ci Hui tang is flourishing all over Taiwan, the leader of Ci Hui tang considered on the religious teachings similarities between I-kuan Dao and wanted making Ci Hui tang being a legal religious organization. Ci Hui Tang applied for a membership to Taoist society of R. O. C. (中華民國道教會). Then Ci Hui tang changed its teaching about Mu Niang to Yaochi jinmu, a goddess from ancient China. Yaochi jinmu is Xi Wangmu (西王母) which can be traced back to oracle bone inscriptions of the fifteenth century BCE. Yao-Chi jin-mu is Xi Wangmu’s official Taoist title. Yao means the precious jade. Yao-Chi is the place where Xi Wangmu lives in. It is said that Yao-Chi is on the Kunlun Mountains. After Ci Hui Tang joined Taoist society, Ci Hui Tang’s Mu niang became equal to Yaochi jinmu.
        According to the statics in 2003, in Taiwan, there are 900 Ci Hui Tang’s branching halls at least. If it is added the other sects that regard Wuji Laomu or Wusheng laomu as the highest deity, then the number of jin-mu or mu-nian’ disciples will be a huge one.
 
 
Keywords: Yaochi jinmu, Ci Hui Tang, Sanqi mojie, Mu niang
 
References:
  1. 國立臺中技術學院應用中文系、苗栗後龍無極聖宮合編。2008。《海峽兩岸東王公西王母信仰學術硏討會論文集》臺中:國立臺中技術學院應用中文系。
  2. 陳立斌。2004。〈台灣慈惠堂的鸞書硏究〉台北:輔仁大學宗教學硏究所碩士論文。
  3. 蔡秀鳳。2009。〈臺灣慈惠堂瑤池金母信仰研究〉台北:國立師範大學台灣文化及語言文學研究所碩士論文。
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