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廣澤尊王(Guangze zunwang)
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臺南市中西區西羅殿廣澤尊王(陳美華攝)

廣澤尊王又稱郭王公、郭聖王、聖王公或保安尊王,全銜「威鎮忠應孚惠威武英烈保安廣澤尊王」,源自福建泉州,是泉州人的保護神。廣澤尊王的造型多作童子相,這和他的傳說有關。廣澤尊王是五代十國時南安縣郭山人,姓郭名忠福(一說為郭洪福或郭乾),出身世家,乃是唐大將郭子儀的後代,但家境貧困,年幼即成為孤兒,為泉州當地的一位陳姓巨富放羊謀生。郭忠福放牧的羊群很是神奇,每每陳姓巨富賣掉些羊之後,羊群的數目也不會變少,結果越來越富。然而,陳富人卻非常吝嗇,請了位地理師來勘風水,竟用一頭掉到糞池裡的羊招待地理師。地理師心裡非常生氣,卻不動聲色。
地理師後來藉機告訴郭忠福,要他把父母屍骨改葬到羊欄附近的吉地,並囑咐他即將有事,如遇毒蜂攻擊,要逃到「銅笠、牛騎人、魚上樹」的地方,即可得脫免災。郭洪福依其言而行,果真毒蜂群湧,竟殺了陳富翁,郭洪福謹記地理師的囑咐,依其言拔腿就跑,天空下起大雨,他果真遇到一位僧人拿著鏡子當斗笠遮雨,又看到幾個牧童躲在牛肚下,就像是牛騎著人。不遠處竟然有個魚夫,為了避雨,手持釣竿,拎著魚上了樹。郭洪福發現有顆大石頭,似乎知道這就是他的歸處,於是在上面打坐,不久後竟成仙飛去。附近的居民得悉之後,這個地方是飛鳳山,就蓋了「鳳山寺」為他立祀。因為他非常靈驗,被封為保安尊王。
廣澤尊王還有其它傳說,一説他秉性良善,坐在某處修行時仙去,人們發現他時仍有體溫,感其神靈於是立供奉,又因為祈雨靈驗,於是被封為「廣澤尊王」。一説雍正為太子時,病中夢感得其療病,於是封為「保安廣尊王」。也有說他在修行正要成仙而去時,母親發現了拉住他一隻腳,所以造型就是只盤了一隻腳。
全臺灣的廣澤尊王最早主要由泉州人來臺分靈或始設,後來又隨移民而擴散,寺多以「鳳山寺」或「保安宮」為名,全台分佈以台南縣市最多,台中、屏東次之,總計全台約有70座左右,有許多神也以廣澤尊王為主祀神,約莫也在70座之間。有些廣澤尊王的裡配祀有黃太尉和陳欽差,還有廣澤尊王夫人妙應仙妃,加上十三個兒子組成的「十三太保」,並組有陣頭組織如將爺會、轎班會等。台南西羅殿即以上述陣頭和作十六歲聞知。每年農曆二月二十三日或八月二十二日都是廣澤尊王的祭日,在此日要獻演戲曲,和上供牲醴,並舉行盛大的神輿遶境儀式。
臺灣各地有許多廣澤尊王的聯誼組織,例如鹿港鳳山寺、雲林土庫鳳山寺等皆成立有聯誼會,知名的西羅殿也成立有相關組織。近年來由於中國大陸的開放,各寺皆有宣告自己為祖的相關儀式和作法,甚至形成論戰,這也說明廣澤尊王信仰活動熱烈的程度。
 
關鍵詞:廣澤尊王、郭洪福、郭聖王、聖王公、保安尊王、西羅殿
 
考書目
姜義鎮。2005。〈廣澤尊王信仰〉。《新竹文獻》,20:134-150。
卓克華。2003。〈鹿港鳳山寺--牧童化成神。信仰遍臺閩〉。《新世紀宗教研究》,2(2):232-272。
陳梅卿。2000。《說聖王.道信仰:透視臺灣廣澤尊王》臺南市:臺灣建築與文化資產。


Guangze zunwang originated from Quanzhou (泉州), Fujian province (福建). He is the patron god of Quanzhou. Most of Guangze zunwang’s images are painted or carved in a children or a youth face. It is in relation with his story.
Guangze zunwang’s name was Guo Zhongfu (郭忠福) and born in Five dynasty. He was the descendent of Guo Ziyi (郭子儀), the genernal who defeted the An-Shi rebellions. However, he was a poor orphan. He shepherded for a richman whose surname was Chen (陳) to make a living. Guo Zhongfu was benevolent by god. The goats he shepherded were always kept in prosperity. Each time some of them were sold. The number of the goat would be kept as the same spontaneously. As a result, Chen was getting rich. However, Chen was stingy and mean.
ON one day, Chen invited a master of feng shui (風水師) came to help him. After the work was done, Chen treated the feng shui master a meal and offered some meat from a goat which drowned in a manure pit. The master was angry but presented silence and peace.
When the master was going to leave, he took a chance to told Guo Zhongfu the secret of feng shui on Chen’s land. The secret was that the auspicious place of Chen’s land was around the goatfold. The master advised Guo Zhongfu reburied his parents’ bones around there and warned him that if there was a disaster, he should run away as fast as he could. The master left a riddle as a hint of the indication to the shelter place. The riddle was the brozen straw hat, a cow riding on a person, and the fish climbing on the tree.
Guo Zhongfu followed the master’s instruction. As soon as he buried the bones of his parents, a crowd of killer bee aroused. They attacked the richman and killed him. Guo Zhongfu rememberd the master’s warning and ran away as fast as he could. Then it rained heavily. He was keeping on running. Suddenly, he glimpsed a monk hand a brozen mirror as an umbrella. By the roadside, there was a shepered boy hiding behind a standing buffallo’s stomach as taking shelter from the heavy rain. Not far away, there was a fishman carring a bunch of fish and climbing on the tree. He realized that it was the right place.
He found a huge flat rock and meditated on it. Then he ascented to heaven and became an immortal. The villagers around there came and found his sitting body. They thought that he was an epiphany. So they established a temple dedicated to him. The temple was named Fengshan temple (鳳山寺). Guo Zhongfu was titled as Baoan zunwang (保安尊王). Later, he was titled as Guangze zunwang because he was efficacious on rain making when people prayed to him.
In Taiwan, early temples dedicated to Guangze zunwang were established by the people from Quanzhou. It is estimated about seventy. Most of them are located at Tainan. Taizhong and Pingdong are in the second and third place.
 
Keywords: Guangze zunwang, Quanzhou, Guo Zhongfu, Fengshan temple, Baoan zunwang
 
References:
姜義鎮,《廣澤尊王信仰》,新竹文獻20,200509頁134-150
卓克華,鹿港鳳山寺--牧童化成神,信仰遍臺閩,新世紀宗教研究卷:2卷2,200312,頁232-272。
陳梅卿,說聖王.道信仰 透視臺灣廣澤尊王,臺南市 臺灣建築與文化資產 2000。
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