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臺南市中西區西羅殿廣澤尊王(陳美華攝)

西秦王爺又稱「郎君爺」,傳說即是唐玄宗(685-762),也就是一般人稱呼為唐明皇的李隆基,由於唐明皇喜好戲曲、音樂,成立梨園,網羅天下的藝文界菁英,於宮中建築戲台,作曲、編劇、演戲,後來被戲劇界尊為開山祖和職業神。其實西秦王爺是台灣特有的戲曲神。根據專家從字源、信仰者的音樂考證,唐玄宗是西秦王爺的說法應屬附會之說。首先,西秦王爺的塑像雖然是白面長鬚,實有可能和梨園子弟所奉之後唐莊宗實為同一神祇。其次,西秦意指秦國之西,大約在甘肅一帶,而唐玄宗的皇城在長安,位於今天的陝西。西秦和唐玄宗並無地理位置上的關聯。第三、西秦王爺在台灣主要的信仰者是亂彈戲班,其淵源來自廣東陸豐,而廣東陸豐的西秦戲則源於明曆年間派任當地的甘肅官員劉天虞。從西泰王爺的不同傳說似乎也能印證唐玄宗之說並不可靠,例如台灣也有西秦王爺姓莊的說法,這似乎是唐玄宗之說再和後唐莊宗混淆的結果。因此,西秦王爺的西秦是指音樂的來源,王爺則是民間神祗本有的稱號,與皇帝無關。
        西泰王爺和田都元帥都是戲劇神,也有其禁忌。例如忌諱念狗,因為狗是西秦王爺的御下,曾幫助西秦王爺。也忌諱念或看到蛇,以免發生事故。登台表演前,為避免怯場或出糗,也喝供奉「西秦王爺」的清茶以助台風。
        根據阮昌銳、徐亞湘等不同時間的調查,台灣的西秦王爺約在六至十一座之間。其間的差距應是其中有部分目前是北管班傳承技藝的場所,並非大眾的信仰中心所致。其中歷史最久者為彰化市聖安宮,建於1833年(道光13年),最晚者為宜蘭復安社宮,建於1991年,復安社宮是由當地漢樂社團自行籌設。密度最高者為瑞芳,有集福宮、瑞龍宮、同安宮,若再加上金山的武英殿,則臺灣東北角顯然與西秦王爺代表的戲劇行業有相當的關聯,其這幾座大都是從台北西秦古而出。此外,包括台北、台中大肚、高雄、屏東等地也有西秦王爺。每年六月二十四為西秦王爺誔辰,各地都舉辦有相關活動,例如酬神戲,或以鑼等向王爺行。台北的西秦古經變故,原址已成眼科診所,相關活動是在臺北龍山寺主辦。
 
關鍵詞:西秦王爺、唐玄宗、後唐莊王、亂彈戲
 
考書目
  1. 阮昌銳。1992。《莊嚴的世界》台北:文開出版事業,5-103。
  2. 徐亞湘。1993。〈臺灣地區戲神:田都元帥與西秦王爺之研究〉。台北:私立中國文化大學藝術研究所碩士論文。
  3. 高賢治。1988。〈現存華被遣忘的北管戲神:西秦王爺與田都元帥 〉。《臺灣風物》,38 ( 3 ):111-125。
  4. 陳慧蓉。1989.12。〈臺灣民間的戲神--田都元帥和西秦王爺〉。《臺灣博物》,8(4):54-57。
  5. 鄭正浩。1983.05。〈樂神一考:臺灣的田都元帥與西秦王爺信仰〉《民俗曲藝》,23/24:118-140。

Xiqin wangye (西秦王爺) is a deity of popular religion only in Tainwan. It is said that he is Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗, 685-762). Because Tang Xuanzong was famous of establishing schools for music, dancing, and acting in Liyuan (梨園), the Pear Garden. The Pear Garden was in the palace city of roysl house. In Liyuan, there is gathering with all of the outstanding persons in music, dancing and action. Tang Xuanzong was the pioneer in the world who founded this kind of school. As a result, he was regarded as the patron god of Chinese tradition music and drama.
Though Xiqin Wangye is regarded as the god transformed from Tang Xuanzong, scholars found the positive evidences are not strong enough. The negative evidences were various. The first is self-evident, left Taiwan there is no other Chinese area where the god Xiqin Wangye was found. The second evidence is the term Xiqin. It denoted the west side of Shanxi (陝西), the area in Gansu (甘肅). But Changan (長安), now Xian (西安), was the capital city of Tang imperial which is located in Shanxi. The third evidence is that the devotees of Xiqin wangye in Taiwan are belong to the Luantan (亂彈) musical tradition. Luantan musical tradition originates from Gansu where is right the place the term Xiqin indicated. Apparently, Xiqin Wangye were not represented Tang Xuanzong originally. There are also some other saying can explain that. It is said that Xiqin Wangye’s surname is Zhuang (莊). However, Tang Xuanzong’s surname is Li (李). The surname Zhuang (莊) is conform to another saying that Xiqin Wangye is the King Zhuang (後唐莊宗)of Later Tang Dynasty (923-937). In summary, Xiqin is a term denoting where the musical tradition origins from and Wangye is not in relation with royal house. Wangye is a general title of god in Chinese popular religion.
There are also some tabooed activities about Xiqin Wangye. Before the actors, actress, and musican mount a platform to perform, they are forbidden to say a word, dog. Dog is the servant of Xiqin Wangye. In order to avoid having stage fright or cuting a poor or sorry figure, sometimes they also drink the tea offered to Xiqin Wangye.
        It is estimated that there are about six to eleven temples dedicated to Xiqin Wangye. The first one was Shengan temple (聖安宮) in Zhanghua (彰化) which was established in 1833. The last one is Fuanshe temple (復安社宮) in Yilan (宜蘭). It was established in 1991 by a local traditionl Chinese music band. The area where most temples located at is Ruifang (瑞芳). There are four temples. There was a temple of Xiqin Wangye in Taipei also. However, it was ruined and reconstructed as a clinic.
        The birthday of Xiqin Wangye is June, 24th in Chinese lunar calendar. The deovtees would hold a play or musical performance as the worshiping.
 
Keywords: Xiqin wangye, Tang Xuanzong, the Pear Garden
 
References:
高賢治,〈現存華被遣忘的北管戲神:西秦王爺與田都元帥 〉 《臺灣風物》, 1988,38 ( 3 ) :,頁111-125。
阮昌銳,《莊嚴的世界》 (台北:文開出版事業,1992),頁5-103。
徐亞湘,〈臺灣地區戲神:田都元帥與西秦王爺之研究〉, (台北:文化大學碩士論文,1993)。
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