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高雄市旗山區妙蓮寺濟公(廖吟梅攝)

濟公俗名李修緣,又稱濟顛、濟顛和尚、濟公活佛等,是南宋時浙江台州人(今浙江省台州市),傳說中是一位不持守戒律、飲酒吃肉的僧人,也是中國佛教裡流行民間的少數人物之一。他是當時天台地方一位武官李文和的遠房子孫,18歲在杭州靈隱寺出家,法名道濟,老師是慧遠,出家後不修邊幅,穿著破衣,不喜歡遵守僧院裡的規定,又喜出言戲謔,被稱作濟顛。因為他不守規矩,破壞靈隱寺的名聲,寺中僧人三番兩次想趕走他,幸賴師父慧遠多次廻護才得免被逐出寺院。師父圓寂後,他被迫轉到淨慈寺。由於他似乎頗有神通,能行異事,經常救助百姓,大眾視他為活佛,是佛教阿羅漢聖者的轉世。濟公在宋嘉定二年(1209年)五月十六日圓寂,臨終前作一偈:「六十年來狼籍,東壁打到西壁。如今收拾歸來,依舊水連天碧。」後來葬於虎跑地,後人為他立紀念。
濟公信仰的發展也和通俗文學流行有很大的關係,濟公的故事自明清時代即成為民間說書人的重要題材,逐漸發展出更豐富的故事,清時集成《濟公全傳》一書。目前在濟公題材的電視劇,不論在臺灣和中國大陸仍非常風行,甚至流傳進入藏區,受到藏人喜好。
濟公在台灣是許多民間教派或宗教團體中的重要人物,在許多進行扶乩扶鸞的團體裡,濟公是很為重要的降神。在台灣南部即有許多以濟公為主祀神的宇由此發展而成。此外,在民間教派如一貫道裡某些實行扶鸞或借竅的組線,濟公也是主要降靈的神祗,信眾之稱為「老師」,他們也認為教主張天然就是濟公的轉世。知名的慈惠堂的各分堂,也經常與濟公的乩身結合,各地宇的團,都能發現濟公的身影,有打扮如濟公的乩童和團一同活動。民間的陣頭裡濟公經常也軋上一腳。在民間信仰裡,濟公不是最高的神祇,而是親民的使者,為民眾向尊崇的神祗傳訊,或是解決他們生活中切身的疑惑和難題。濟公可說是佛教最深入民間的人物之一。
 
 


 高雄市旗山區妙蓮寺濟公(廖吟梅攝)
 
關鍵詞:濟公、濟顛、一貫道、慈惠堂

考書目
  1. Shahar, Meir. (1998) Crazy Ji : Chinese religion and popular literature. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press.
  2. 張忠良。2006。〈南臺灣的濟公宇及其信仰〉。《成大中文學報》,14:211-238。
  3. 張忠良。2007。《濟公故事綜合硏究》臺北:秀威資訊科技出版。
  4. 張忠良。2007。〈多元形象的佛門顛僧~濟公活佛〉。《心鏡宗教季刊》,12:36-38。
  5. 黃東陽。2008。〈顛狂的真相--《濟公全傳》所呈顯濟公「狂行勸喻」之思維模式及其社會意義〉。《新世紀宗教研究》,7(2):57-101
  6. 賴永海。1993。《濟公和尚》臺北:東大。


        Ji Gong’s name is Li Xiu-yuan (李修緣) whose names in religion are various, including Ji Dian (濟顛), Monk Ji Dian (濟顛和尚), or the Living Buddha Ji Gong (濟公活佛) etc. Ji Gong was in Sung Dynasty. He is a descendant of a military marshal, Lee Wen-he (李文和), around Tian Tai (天台) area, Zhe Jiang province (浙江省). When he was eighteen, he became a monk at Ling Yin temple (靈隱寺), Hang Zhou (杭州). His master was Hui-yuan (慧遠), a very kind master to Ji Gong. It is said that Ji Gong was a monk not obeying the disciplines of Buddhist monastery. He drank wine and ate meat. His talking was naughty and behavior was crazy. Other monks did not like him and always wanted to expel him from the temple. However, his master always kept him stay well until his mater was dead. After that, Ji Gong was ejected from the Ling Yin temple. He moved to another temple, the Jingci temple (淨慈寺), and stayed there till he was dead. Because he had some magical power, he always helped people, such as to cure their sickness or predicate their accidents etc. Then People loved him very much and think that he was the incarnation of a Buddhist saint, the Taming Dragon Arhat (降龍羅漢). Ji Gong was dead in 1209 and buried at Hu Pao Di (虎跑地), a place by Western Lake (西湖).
        The belief on Ji Gong is so popular because of not only Ji Gong’s legendary biography but also the folk literature’s contribution as well. By the beginning of Ming dynasty, many storytellers propagated Ji Gong’s thaumaturgical stories. All the material enriched Ji Gong’s story. Today, Ji Gong’s story is rewritten as some TV shows also. They are very popular not only in Taiwan but also in Mainland China and Tibet area.
        Ji Gong is an important figure in the popular religion. Many sects in Taiwan regard him as a deity. For example, when people call upon their gods (降神) or hold on the flying phoenix ritual (扶鸞), Ji Gong is one of the major deities who possesses on the medium. In I-kuan Dao, the disciples call Ji Gong ‘Lao shi’ (老師), the master or the teacher, and they believe that I-kuan Dao's founder, Zhang Tian-ran (張天然, 1889-1947), was the incarnation of Ji Gong. Another famous sect, Ci Hui Tang (慈惠堂), is the one who familiar with Ji Gong’s mediumship. In popular religion, although Ji Gong is not the highest god, he is the benevolent messenger who helps people.
 
Keywords: Ji Gong, I-kuan Dao, Ci Hui Tang
 
References:
  1. Shahar, Meir. (1998) Crazy Ji : Chinese religion and popular literature. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press.
  2. 張忠良。2006。〈南臺灣的濟公宇及其信仰〉。《成大中文學報》,14:211-238。
  3. 張忠良。2007。《濟公故事綜合硏究》臺北:秀威資訊科技出版。
  4. 張忠良。2007。〈多元形象的佛門顛僧~濟公活佛〉。《心鏡宗教季刊》,12:36-38。
  5. 黃東陽。2008。〈顛狂的真相--《濟公全傳》所呈顯濟公「狂行勸喻」之思維模式及其社會意義〉。《新世紀宗教研究》,7(2):57-101。
  6. 賴永海。1993。《濟公和尚》臺北:東大。
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