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新北市金山區法山觀世音菩薩 (法山基金會提供)

佛教菩薩之一,歷經近千年的轉變,成為佛教民間信仰的神祗,也是臺灣民間最受崇拜的神祇之一。又稱觀世音、觀自在、南海古佛、觀音大士、圓通教主、觀音佛祖。臺灣一般信眾大都稱觀音媽、佛祖媽,或簡稱佛祖。
        觀音信仰源出於佛教,最初原是男性人物,隨著《普門品》流傳祂尋聲救苦、慈悲應化的願力,觀音深入民心,逐漸轉變成女神,其信仰的普及與妙善公主的傳說亦有所關連,觀音經由轉世化身的信仰,以多種女性的身份與人類世界。臺灣寺中觀音的形象,主要有送子觀音、魚籃觀音、水月觀音、千手千眼觀音等等多樣化的造型。在臺灣民俗中,焦面大士鬼王也是觀世音的化身,媽祖則是觀音的一滴血所化,在在顯示觀世音深受民間愛戴,因而衍生許多傳說附會的情形。臺灣觀音信仰中石觀音與水流觀音的信仰,亦不乏其例,亦顯示其與民俗的密切相關。
         除了成為民間宗教的重要神祗,觀世音信仰在臺灣也經常轉化為民間佛教的形態,有許多觀音均被稱為「巖仔」,街市中的觀音稱為「觀音亭」,其他如主祀觀世音的堂,也屬於這種類型。民家的神明廳上往往也懸掛有「家堂五神」的畫像,這類畫像上繪有觀世音菩薩、天上聖母、關聖帝君、福德正神、司命灶君等,觀世音一律被安置於最上層以示尊崇,因此而稱為「觀音媽聯」或「觀音彩仔」,此即所謂「家家觀世音」的由來。觀世音左右通常又奉祀善才童子與龍女公主,或者同祀文殊菩薩與普賢菩薩。民間以農曆2月19日為觀世音誕生日,6月19日為觀世音得道日,9月19日為觀世音出家日。
        臺灣重要的觀音有艋舺龍山寺、林口竹林山觀音寺、大溪蓮座山觀音寺、龜山壽山巖觀音寺、清水紫雲巖、鹿港龍山寺、白河火山碧雲寺、阿蓮超峰寺等。



基隆市信義區大佛禪院觀世音菩薩(陳美華攝)

關鍵詞:民間佛教,觀音媽,巖仔堂,觀音彩仔
 
考書目
林美容、蘇全正。2003。〈臺灣的民間佛教傳統與「巖仔」的觀音信仰之社會實踐〉。《新世紀宗教研究》,2(3):2-34。
林美容。2007。〈臺灣觀音信仰的主要型態〉。收於《民間佛教研究》。「人間佛教叢書」2。譚偉倫主編。北京:中華書局。
陳清。1973。〈觀音菩薩形像研究〉。《華岡佛學文報》,3:57-78。
Sangren, P. Steven. 1983. “ Female Gender in Chinese Religious Symbols: Kuan Yin, Ma Tsu, and the Eternal Mother” Signs: Journal of Women in culture and society, 9(1): 4-25.
 
建議書目
于君方。2009。《觀音:菩薩中國化的演變》。臺北:法
顏素慧。2001。《觀音小百科:第一本親近觀音的書》。臺北:橡樹林。


Guanyin, Avalokiteśvara, a goddess originates from India. At first, Guanyin was a male bodhisattva in Chinese Buddhism. After thousands years, Guanyin became a female figure in Chinese Buddhism and goddess in popular religion. Guanyin is the most popular goddess in Taiwan. She is also called Guanshiyin (觀世音), Guanzizai (觀自在), Nanhai gufo (南海古佛), Guanyin dashi (觀音古佛), Yuantong jiaozhu (圓通教主), and Guanyin fozu (觀音佛祖). In Taiwan, she is often abbreviated as Guanyin ma (觀音媽), Fozu ma (佛祖媽), or Fozu (佛祖).
According to the chapter 25th of Lotus Sutra (法華經), the Universal Gateway (普門品), Guanyin is a bodhisattva who can assume all living being no matter what kind of gender or form is needed to liberate beings from suffering. After this mercy figure went deep and vast in Chinese society, Guanyin became a goddess. As various kinds of female avatar, Guanyin attended Chinese life. In Taiwan, Guanyin’s figure is various, including conferring kids, holding a bamboo basket, moon mirroring in water, thousands hands and eyes. A ghost king with flaming face is also one of Guanyin’s avatars. Mazu (媽祖) was also formed from one blood of Guanyin. Above phenomena and legend reveal the close relation between Guanyin and popular religion.
        Besides, in Taiwan, many temples of popular religion are also dedicated to Guanyin and named in relation of Guanyin. Many temples are named Yan zai (巖仔) or Guanyin ting (觀音亭). In the house, Guanyin is the major element in most of the icon hung above the shrine. On this kind of icon, Guanyin is placed above all other god. Under Guanyin, there are Mazu, Guansheng dijun, the Earth god, and the kitchen god. By the side of Guanyin, there are Shancai (善才) and Longnu (龍女). As a result, a saying is that Guanyin is worshiped in every house. The nineteenth day of the second month in Chinese lunar calendar is Guanyin’s birthday. The nineteenth day of the sixth month is Guanyin’s enlightened day. The nineteenth day of the nineth month is the day Guanyin becoming a monk.
There are many temples dedicated to Guanyin in Taiwan. The famous are Longshan temple (龍山寺)and Zhulin shan Guanyin temple (竹林山觀音寺) in Taipei, the Lianzuoshan Guanyin temple (蓮座山觀音寺) and Shoushanyan Guanyin temple (壽山巖觀音寺) in Taoyuan (桃園), the Ziyunyan (紫雲巖) in Taizhong (台中), Longshan temple (龍山寺) in Lugang (鹿港), Biyun temple (碧雲寺)in Tainan and Chaofeng temple (超峰寺) in Gaoxiong (高雄), etc.
 
Keywords: Avalokiteśvara, Guanyin ma, Yan zai (巖仔)
 
考書目
林美容、蘇全正。2003。〈臺灣的民間佛教傳統與「巖仔」的觀音信仰之社會實踐〉。《新世紀宗教研究》,2(3):2-34。
林美容。2007。〈臺灣觀音信仰的主要型態〉。收於《民間佛教研究》。「人間佛教叢書」2。譚偉倫主編。北京:中華書局。
陳清。1973。〈觀音菩薩形像研究〉。《華岡佛學文報》,3:57-78。
Sangren, P. Steven. 1983. “ Female Gender in Chinese Religious Symbols: Kuan Yin, Ma Tsu, and the Eternal Mother” Signs: Journal of Women in culture and society, 9(1): 4-25.
 
建議書目
于君方。2009。《觀音:菩薩中國化的演變》。臺北:法
顏素慧。2001。《觀音小百科:第一本親近觀音的書》。臺北:橡樹林。
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