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臺南市安南區鹿耳門聖母五府千歲(陳美華攝)

「五府千歲」是臺灣王爺類神祇中最普遍的一種,亦作「五王」。「五府」的意思,簡言之就是五位不同姓氏的王爺,王爺裡合祀有五位王爺,或是與這五位五爺相關者。至於五位王爺究竟是那五位,各地自有不同組合,這些不同組合有「李、池、吳、朱、范」,是最普遍的一組,其它尚有「謝、周、陳、康、沈」;「蘇、王、梁、秦、蔡」;「池、邢、金、何、馬」;「溫、白、紀、范、雷」;「朱、岳、韓、金、伍」等不同組合。「李、池、吳、朱、范」這組裡,五姓分居大、二、三、四、五王爺,名字分別為李大亮、池夢彪、吳孝寬、朱叔裕、范承業」。
王爺信仰裡有一分類是作暗訪、十二瘟王、五瘟三類,暗訪類流行於鹿港地區,十二瘟王下又分三年王爺、五年王爺,主要以值歲的十二位瘟王為主祀或以客王的身份按時輪值。五瘟這類下又分五府千歲和五福大帝,皆是王爺系統中的一大類,兩者之間有幾乎雷同的五秀才投井自殺救瘟的傳說故事,容易和五府千歲混淆的五年王爺屬十二瘟王類,主要流行於雲嘉地區,這類王爺是以實際約四年的週迎請十二瘟王中的不同王爺。五府千歲則是固定的五位王爺。
五府千歲除了有著與五福大帝類似的傳說外,另有根據史貽輝(1912-2001)撰述之〈五府千歲略傳〉,五府千歲本是隋末唐初時人,當時天下大亂,李大亮、池夢彪、吳孝寬、朱叔裕、范承業等五人因為意氣相投,結義金蘭,投身唐高祖李淵陣營,因習於武藝兼熟兵法,頗有軍功,歷經高祖、太宗二,皆居文武要職。這五人過世後,即受玉帝的封敕,成為王爺,並下降人間,乘坐王船代天巡狩」,巡遊四方,為民消災。根據考證,五人之中只有李大亮載於正史中。
然而,各地不論五府千歲或是諸府千歲,大扺不脫瘟神故事的原型。以流傳甚廣的池府千歲為例,據說池夢彪任知府時,適逢天帝派下瘟神降瘟,卻因瘟神化身的士人與池府相談甚歡,結為莫逆,乃於酒席間無意中洩露降瘟的天機,池知府因為愛民如子,於是騙得瘟神的毒藥,將毒藥盡服下,犠牲自己解救全城百姓。池夢彪知府因為服毒,滿臉黑斑且雙眼突出而亡。玉帝因為他捨己為人的精神,於是敕封他為代天巡狩。這類以代民受過,驅逐瘟疫為主軸的故事,亦可見於包括五福大帝以及其它王爺的民間傳說,是王爺類神祇的傳說故事其基本架構之一。大致上王爺千歲之所以為瘟王的故事大致可分五類:一、誤殺。這類是360進士死於奸臣構陷,於地窖裡奏樂,在唐玄宗測試張天師的法力時,以法術殺死。二、獲罪而死。因為王爺生前為官進諫或橫行不道,死於非命。三、淹死。這類傳說明王爺本為明進士,乘船不幸淹死。四、死於職守,即前述池府王爺或五福大帝救瘟之類。五、死因不明。
奉祀以上「李、池、吳、朱、范」五位千歲的宇,以台南市北門區南鯤鯓代天府為知名,建於1817年,源於一王船漂流至此而建,1923年至1937年擴建而有今日之規模,火廣佈,在臺灣各地乃至泰國皆有,如新北市板橋區鎮北宮即為其。至於各地單姓或多姓的王爺,例如麻豆代天府、新竹新豐池府王爺、雲林的溫府王爺等亦可屬於廣義的五府千歲宇。
中文關鍵字:五府千歲、池王爺、代天府、王爺、瘟神


臺南市安南區鹿耳門聖母五府千歲(陳美華攝)

 
考資料
1.劉枝。1983。〈臺灣的瘟神〉。收錄於《臺灣民間信仰論集》。台北:聯經。
2.黃文博。1994。《臺灣字文化大系〔卷四):五府王爺 》。臺北:自立晚報。
3.鄭志明。1988。〈王爺傳說〉。《民俗曲藝》。52-53:17-37、101-118。

Wufu chiensui (五府千歲)is the most common kind deities among Wanye (王爺). They are also called Wuwang(五王). Wufu means five different last name of Wanye. It is a combination of five Wanye. In other words, a temple dedicated to Wufu chiensui means there are five Wanye as the main deity in the temple. However, the combination is various. The most common one is Lee, Chi, Wu, Zhu, and Fan (李, 池, 吳, 朱, 范). The others are Xie, Zhou, Chen, Kang, Shen (謝, 周, 陳, 康, 沈); Su, Wang, Liang, Qin, Cai(蘇、王、梁、秦、蔡); Chi, Xing, Jin, He, Ma(池、邢、金、何、馬); Wen, Bai, Ji, Fan, Lei(溫、白、紀、范、雷); and Zhu, Yue, Han, Jin, Wu(朱、岳、韓、金、伍). In the most common one, the five wangye are Li Daling (李大亮), Chi Mengbiao(池夢彪), Wu Xiaojkuan(吳孝寬), Zhu Shuyu(朱叔裕), and Fan Chengye(范承業).
One kind of Wanye’s classification is Anfang (暗訪), Shier Wenwang (十二瘟王, twelve rotated wenwang) and Wu Wenshen(五瘟神, five plague spirits). Anfang is mainly practiced in Lugan area. Shier Wenwang is a rotating system of wangwe. There are two sub branched under this kind. They are Sannian Wangye (三年王爺) and Wunian Wangye (五年王爺). The difference between them is the rotating cycle. In Sannian, it is three years. In another type, it is nominally five years, since actually is four years. Twelve wanye are in rotation. In each cycle, three or five Wanye as guest deities are dedicated in a Temple. In Wu Wenshen, the sub kinds are Wufu chiensui and Wufu Dadi(五福大帝). They share common plots of Wanye’s story. It is mainly about five students scarified themselves to save peoples from plague.
Besides sharing common legendary plots with Wufu Dadi, Wufu chiensui also has its own biography. In the light of Shi Yihui(史貽輝,1912-2001), base on undated records, he thought that Wufu chiensui were the people by the end of Sui Dynasty. They were sworn brothers following Li Yuan(李淵, ), the founder of Tang Dynasty. They were good in the martial art and knowing the strategic well. So they did great in the camp of Li Yuan. They became cabinets after Tang Dynasty was funded. After they were died, they were decreed by Jade Emperor as Wanye and descending to the world as wanye, the agent of Jade Emperor, sailing Wanye’s boat and going on as inspection. However, among the five names, only Li Daling is available in the historical records.
Though Wufu chiensui are maybe fictional figures, almost everywhere, no matter Wufu chiensui or a single wanye, they share the same plague spirits character. Taking Chifu chiensui(池府千歲), the most popular one among Wufu chiensui, as example, it was said when he was a governor of prefecture, he sacrificed himself to save people. It was because that Chi Wanye was happened to know an unidentified person. He was generous and invited him to have a drink. Both of them were glad to meet each other and they became sworn brothers. During the dining, the person accidentally revealed himself as the agent of Jade Emperor who was dispatched to scatter plague to punish peoples. When Chi Wanye knew the secrets, he deceived the person and stole the plague pills. Then Chi Wanye took the pills and died soon to save the people in the prefecture. When he was dying, his face became dark and turned many black spots out. His eyes protrude. Regarding to his sacrifice, Jade Emperor decreed him as a wanye.
Above story has the basic structure of all wanye’s legend. Basically, the stories of persons dying and becoming a plague spirit or wanye can be classified into five type according to the dying reason. The first is murdering accidentally. It was said there are 360 students who pass the imperial examination in Tang Dynasty. When they was invited by Emperor into the palace, a treacherous minister trapped and killed them in a vault. The second is criminal. It was said that the wanye are behavior badly when they were alive. They finally got capital punishment. The third is they being drowned. Wanye are the officials in Ming Dynasty. They were drowned when sailing. The fourth is they being dying in the line of duty. The Chi Wanye’s case is an example. The fifth is an unclear cause of death. Apparently, Wufu chiensui or Wanye’s origin is connected with tragic deads.
The most famous temple dedicated to Wufu chiensui in Daitian Fu(代天府) in Beiman area (北門區), Tainan city(台南市). It was established in 1817, origin from a floating Wanye’s boat. Some people also made a dividing incense, fenxiang() from Daitian Fu and set brached in New Taipei City and Thailand. Besides, there are also other temples dedicated to one or more chiensui in middle and southern Taiwan, such as another Daitian Fu in Madou(麻豆), Tainan City and Wufu wanye in Xinxhu.
 
Keywords:
Royal Lords, plague gods, The Five Royal Lords
 
考資料
1. 劉枝。1983。〈臺灣的瘟神〉。收錄於《臺灣民間信仰論集》。台北:聯經。
2.黃文博。1994。《臺灣字文化大系〔卷四):五府王爺 》。臺北:自立晚報。
3.鄭志明。1988。〈王爺傳說〉。《民俗曲藝》,52-53連載。
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