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臺北市士林區聖佑宮石頭公(陳美華攝)

石頭公亦稱作「石聖公」、「石將軍」、「石佛公」、「石府將軍」等,若不將石頭公限制為男性神祇,亦應加入「石母娘娘」(以客家人為主)。簡言之,石頭公就是民間宗教裡以石頭為神的宗教實踐,屬自然崇拜的一種,按照宗教人類學的解釋,石頭公是物有靈論的宗教實踐,也就是把自然界中的生物或無生物皆視為有靈性。更有人認為,以自然物為神是中國「天人合一」的展現。
        華人以石頭為崇拜對象的歷史源遠流長,而公、將軍、娘娘等等稱號,則是中國宗教裡為神封以官爵構成的官僚體系特徵。古代有些土地神,即吾人今日熟悉的土地公,即是從立石封神開始,例如《呂氏春秋》有「殷人社用石」之說,至今臺灣有些福德正神有類似傳統,以石頭為土地公像。此外,石頭也和生育傳說有關,如宋的雜史《路史》裡,也有大禹是其母從石受孕,因而以石為神的故事。人們也相信石頭具有靈氣,如知名的章回小說《紅樓夢》原名即是《石頭記》,因為全書始於一塊女媧煉石補天遺留下的石頭,這顆石頭頗有靈性故喚作「通靈寶玉」,後來成為故事的主角轉生人間變成賈寶玉。上舉例子,說明石頭公成為民間宗教的崇拜對象,是建立在相當廣泛的人類文化基礎之上。根據游謙對臺灣的石頭公案例分析,石頭之所以被崇拜,可分為幾項因素。一、位置。由於石頭所處的位置是人潮匯集的地方,例如礦坑口,因為交通位置特別,人們出入頻繁,自然地視為崇拜對象,祈求出入平安;二是顏色或形狀特殊。由於石頭的顏色、形狀顯然和週遭不同,或是和某些事物外型相似,甚至似人,似神佛。例如台中市南屯區鎮平里的福德,其石頭因為狀如人型,加上有樹齡逾百年的大榕樹,成為知名的石頭公,礁溪的協和的石頭公是一顆顏色奇妙的石頭;三者發生過奇蹟,這些在各地的石頭公皆有相關傳說,例如南投茄苳腳的石頭公,就是因為孩童以拜石頭為戲,突然神靈附體,或是宜蘭冬山的石聖公,是因為石頭會自己回到原位;四、陽具崇拜或生殖繁衍的崇拜。這類例子在漢人社會中較少,但是各地文化裡仍有相關的習俗暗示石頭崇拜和生殖有關,例如華北婦女撿石頭求生子,臺灣亦有拜石頭公以祈求小孩子身體健康的習俗。至於原住民某些部落的遺址也發現有類似石頭公信仰的考古證據。
        石頭公偏佈全臺灣,主要在鄉下和近山處,即使在臺北盆地,近山的郊區如三峽、內湖芝山岩、木柵等地皆有,據估計可能超過一千處以上。有多座石頭公以祈求安產、孩童身體健康知名,例如宜蘭冬山的石聖公、四城的協和、苗栗的石母娘娘、台北木柵的石頭公等等。亦有少數屬私人或公司行號的崇拜,例如高雄半屏山下的東南水泥廠區內的「顯靈殿」即有石公、石婆。也有若干新興者與賭風熾盛時有關,這類石頭公多以求財為主,若靈驗性無法持續,多不經久旋即消失。


臺北市士林區聖佑宮石頭公(陳美華攝)

 
關鍵字
石頭公、石將軍、石佛公、石母娘娘、物有靈論
 
考資料
  1. 阮昌銳。1982。〈台灣民間的石頭神〉。《海外學人》124:32-37。收入1987《傳薪集》頁127-132。台北:省立博物館。
  2. 游謙。2004。〈聖顯與臺灣的石頭崇拜〉。《新世紀宗教研究》。2:3。頁102-128。

Shito gong(石頭公) , the Duke of Stone, is also called Shi jiangjun (石將軍, General of Stone), Shi shenggong(石聖公, the Holly Duke of Stone), or Shi fogong(石佛公, the Buddhist Duke of Stone). If the female deity is included, the Shito Nian-Nian(石頭娘娘, Lady Stone), should be added. The last name of duke is because he or she was a stone. The Duke, General, Mother is their title. In other words, Duke of Stone is a representation of stone worship. Regarding to anthropologist understanding, the stone worship is a practice of animism. An idea regards everything in the nature with spirit.
        Duke of Stone is not only about nature but also ancient. Ancient Chinese established a stone as a mark of the Earth Deity. An record kept in The Lü shih ch'un ch'iu(呂氏春秋), it is said that people of the Ying(殷) kingdom established a stone enshrines the Deity of She(社). In Taiwan, the folklore is still kept elsewhere. Besides, stone is also related to fertilize legend. In a story like history, it is said that Yu the Great(大禹)’ mother was becoming pregnant from a stone. Then the stone was be enshrined by her. People also believed a stone is maybe spiritual. The famous classical novel, Dream of the Red Chamber(紅樓夢》, is related to a spiritual stone, so the origin title is the Story of Stone(石頭記). The beginning of the novel is a stone left by Nuwa(女媧) after she finished her makeup of heaven. Then the stone incarnated as the character Jia Baoyu and the story beginning. Summarily, the Duke of Stone is based on a deep cultural circumstance.
The key factor of the Duke of Stone is why some stone was selected by people among variant stones. Regarding to scholar You Qian(游謙)’s analyze based on a field research in Taiwan, there are four reasons why a stone is worshiped. The first is the location of a stone. A stone could be worshiped by people because of the location of  stone, a mine gate as an example. Miners pray to it for traffic and work safety. The second is the color and the shape of stone. A stone’s color is apparently different from the circumstance or shape is like human, divinity figure. Third, a miracle is occurred. In Yilan(宜蘭), a stone was said to kept in same place after being moved times. In Nantou(南投), some kids praying to a stone as playing, one of them was possessed. Finally, all the stone in the case became Shito gong. The fourth, it is linked with Linga worship. However, the case is rare Taiwan. For pragrent or children’s healthy which are the case’s transformations are more common.
Shito gong is major located in rural area and the suburban districts which are near a mountain or a hill. In Taipei basin, there are still some shrines dedicated to Shito gong. For example, Nehu(內湖), Sanxia(三峽), and Muza(木柵) are included. It is estimated there are thousands of shrines dedicated to Shito gong in Taiwan. There are many famous of blessing pregnancy of women and healthy of kids. However, there are some new flourishing shrines because of gambling practice. When one is failing on a prophecy, the shrine is waste.
       
Keywords:
Shito gong, the Duke of Stone, animism
 
考資料
  1. 阮昌銳。1982。〈台灣民間的石頭神〉。《海外學人》124:32-37。收入1987《傳薪集》頁127-132。台北:省立博物館。
  2. 游謙。2004。〈聖顯與臺灣的石頭崇拜〉。《新世紀宗教研究》。2:3。頁102-128。
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