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新北市汐止區拱北殿孚佑帝君(陳美華攝)

孚佑帝君即八仙裡的呂洞賓,又稱「純陽祖師」、「呂仙公」、「呂祖」等,亦簡稱仙公。呂洞賓是介乎歷史和神話之間的人物,他是鍾離權的徒弟,八仙之一,以隱晦的預言,神奇的醫術等知名,又習得道教神仙的劍術,能夠長生不老、神通自在,是隱藏身分,穿著道袍、持劍、面貌俊秀又仙風道骨的形象,自由自在遊歷人間的神仙。
        關於呂洞賓的出身至今仍是謎,一說他是山西、陝西地方人士,一說他是西安或永樂地方人士,有人認為他是唐末時人,也有人認為他是五代宋初時人。確切的說法,呂洞賓的傳說始於北宋,始於900年,至1000年左右達到高峰,到1050年前後,甚至因為貝州的叛亂引來官方的調查,但最後不了了之。雖然官方一度甚表關切,但呂洞賓的傳說盛行不墜,有許多神奇的傳說以他為中心,一說王安石曾想拜他為師,卻因為王安石的業障太重被拒絕了;另一傳說他是陳摶的弟子,習得神行百里的神奇劍術;流傳民間最廣的傳說是他經常考驗人們的貪婪,但是大多數人都因為貪心,選擇金銀財寶而失去獲得他真傳仙術的機會,甚至連神霄派的一位道士都沒能認出他,相關故事裡只有一位牧牛人、一位商人、還有一位名叫杜昌言的富人通過他的考驗。人們還有其他方式與之相遇,作夢,更有他留下的詩句為線索,洞庭湖畔的岳陽樓即因為他多次造訪,留下了許多詩句。
呂洞賓傳說的影響力極大,除了南北宋之間的《夷堅志》收錄有呂洞賓的多則故事外,連宋代佛教文獻《佛祖統紀》裡也收有他的詩句。此外,由於後來全真教的巨大影響,呂洞賓在整個中國擴展開來,從以、堂、室等單位小聚落或私人的信仰,變成地區性乃至全國的大型宮觀,促成日後位於山西、河南交界處的永樂宮變成孚佑帝君的信仰中心。此外,道教的南宗裡,呂洞賓也是極為重要的傳承祖師之一。
        臺灣以孚佑帝君為主祀的宇,根據1981年的統計約52座(重修台灣省通志。住民篇宗教篇,頁1061-2),以成立於1891年的臺北木柵指南宮著稱,還有如鳯山鎮南宮、旗山興南宮、霧峰進南宮,亦以孚佑帝君為主祀,指南宮在其凌霄寶殿中設有中華道教學院。因為呂洞賓的神仙性格,也有相關的信仰習俗和禁忌,例如將服兵役者,需前往指南宮祈求平安,而情侶則不宜拜呂洞賓,否則日後將分手收場;亦有專程投宿指南宮者,冀求夢境啟示。此外,孚佑帝君在臺灣亦多和鸞堂結合,因為呂洞賓位列五恩主之一,是為鸞堂系統裡的主要信仰神祇。此外,呂洞賓也是行業神之一,是包括醫藥、理髮等行業的守護神。目前相關宇亦成立有全國性的社團組織「中華道教純陽祖師協會」。
 

臺南市安南區鹿耳門聖母孚佑帝君(陳美華攝)


關鍵詞
孚佑帝君、呂洞賓八仙、指南宮、純陽祖師
考資料
考資料
1.王志宇。1997。《臺灣的恩主公信仰:儒宇神教與飛鷥勸化》。臺北:文津。
2.康豹。2010。《多面相的神仙-永樂宮的呂洞賓信仰》。濟南:齊魯書社。
3.康豹。1995。〈臺灣的呂洞賓信仰中:以指南宮為例〉。《新史學》,6(4):2143。


Fuyou dijiun is well known as Lu Dongbin(呂洞賓), one of the Eight Immortals(八仙). He is also called Chunyang zhenjun(純陽祖師), Master of Pure Yang. People more likely call him Xian gong(仙公) or Lu zu(呂祖, Master of Lu). Lu Dongbin is a figure between legendary and reality. He is a disciple of Zhongli Quan(鍾離權). His ambigious prophet, amazing technique of medical and sword are deeply rooted in people’s mind. He is a poet, soothsayer, and exorcist. Briefly, he has two faces of image. One is a handsome and slender divinity and often wear Taoist rob, holding a sword. Another is as an anonymous, showed unpredictable elsewhere.
        Where Lu Dongbin came from and when was he born are still riddles. One story of Lu Dongbin is he was born at between Shanxi(山西) province and Shanxi(陝西) province. Another is said that he was born at Xian(西安) or Yongle(永樂) area. Some people thought that he was in Tang dynasty. It is also said that he was in Five Period(五代) or the beginning of Sung Dynasty(宋). However, above all, one thing can be sure is the legend of Lu Dongbin going to peak between the 900’s to 1000’s, the Northern Sung Dynasty. The impact of Lu Dongbin’s legend is so huge. A rebel uprised in Bei province(貝州), officials investigated the link between the rebel and Lu Dongbin. Finally, the investigation did not get any result but the legend of Lu Dongbin was unstoppable.
        There were many stories about Lu Dongbin. One of them is about Wang Anshi(王安石), a prime minister of the Northern Sung Dynasty, who want to be a disciple of Lu Dongbin. However, because he was sinful, he was rejected. Another is Lu Dongbin was a disciple of Chen Tuan(陳摶). He learned a magical technique of sword from Chen Tuan that makd him travelled very far in a brief time. Others are major about his anonymous identity. It is said that Lu Dongbin test people’s heart in this way. If a person could recognize him and pass the test, one would get his teaching in person. Most of them, including a Taoist, failed his test because of their greed. Few passed and only one left name, he was a rich named Du Changyan(杜昌言). Another was a shepherd. The other was a businessman. Beside met with Lu Dongbin in person, people could find him by dreaming and reading his poetry. Lu Dongbin was so popular that the famous pavilion, Yueyang Tower(岳陽樓) by Lake Dongting Lake(洞庭湖), kept many poetry attributed to Lu Dongbin’s writing. Even a Buddhist anthology collected his some poetry. An important literature about Lu Dongbin is Yijian zhi(夷堅志), edited and written by Hong Mai(洪邁, 1123-1202). There are many stories about him.
One major factor of Lu Dongbin’s propagation is the Quanzhen School of Taoism(全真教). Quanzhen School was charted by Yuan royal court. Quanzhen School’s major contribution is linking all the discrete groups and organizes of Lu Dongbin’s believer in compounds, villages, and counties together and making them work as a nation-wide group. Quanzhen School venerates Lu Dongbin as one of his patriarch fathers. As a result, Yongle temple became the center dedicated to Lu Dongbin. Finally, not only the northern lineage of Taoist(北宗) regards Lu Dongbin as a patriarch father but also the southern lineage(南宗). In other words, Lu Dongbin is  totally adopted by Taoist then. Whether he is real or not does not matter anymore.
        In 1981, Taiwan, it was estimated that temples dedicated to Fuyou dijiun were 52. The number is not including the temples and shrines dedicated to Enzhu(恩主, Beneficial Lords). The temples dedicated to Enzhu are majorly practiced in spiritual writing(fuji, 扶乩). Spiritual writing is also an important ritual related to Fuyou dijiun. The famous temple is Zhinan temple(指南宮), located in Muza(木柵), Taipei. Others are Zhennan temple(鎮南宮) in Fengshan(鳳山), Xingnan temple(興南宮) in Qishan(旗山), and Jinan temple(進南宮) in Wufong(霧峰).
There are some activities and taboos about Fuyou dijiun. Lovers are suggested not to pray to Fuyou dijiun. Because he is naughty and lover can be broken up. Some temples provide cabinet for devotees who want to dream about Lu Dongbin to get a prophecy. Besides, Fuyou dijiun is also the tutelary deity of medical and barbers. There is also a national association of Lu Dongbin, named the Chinese Association of Taoist Chunyang Master(中華道教純陽祖師協會).
 
Keywords:
Fuyou dijiun, Lu Dongbin, Zhinan temple, Chunyang Master, The Eight Immortals
 
考資料
  1. 王志宇。1997。《臺灣的恩主公信仰:儒宇神教與飛鷥勸化》。臺北:文津。
  2. 康豹。2010。《多面相的神仙-永樂宮的呂洞賓信仰》。濟南:齊魯書社。
  3. 康豹(Paul Katz)。1995。〈臺灣的呂洞賓信仰中:以指南宮為例〉。《新史學》,6(4):2143。
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