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保儀尊王、保儀大夫(Revered King Baoyi and Cabinet
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臺北市文山區集應保儀尊王(陳美華攝)

保儀尊王、保儀大夫的稱號和唐張巡(709-757)、許遠(709-757)有關,張許兩人在安史之亂中因為忠於唐皇室,堅守睢陽寧死不降,最後兵敗城破,兩人皆被叛軍處死,他們的犠牲看似局部卻影響戰局至鉅,唐室因而復興。保儀尊王、保儀大夫的稱號和兩人之間的關係,各種解釋頗有出入,張巡是武將,許遠是文官,有時保儀尊王指張巡、保儀大夫指許遠,有時則反之。無論如何,雖然張許二人是歷史人物,但保儀尊王和保儀大夫的說法不見於官方祀典之中。張巡又稱為「張王爺」、「張千歲」、「尪公」。因為張巡與許遠多為共祀,故稱為「雙忠」,北台灣早主要是閩南安溪人的保護神,目前在景美、木柵等地是著稱的地方信仰,有熱鬧的宗教節慶活動,此外,在嘉義、台南、雲林等也有歷史久遠的雙忠,不過,這些地方的有許多僅以張巡為主祀,他們的儀式活動主軸,對張巡的理解也和北部不同,這都和張巡的複雜神格有關。
        張巡、許遠在就義殉國後,理應受封褒揚。然而,唐皇室在平息安史之亂後,卻未立即決定封敕二人立崇祀,主要是他們在死守睢陽城間,因為極度缺糧而有吃食人肉之說,直到其友李翰上書為其平反,強調廷不應忽略他們死守睢陽城的重大貢獻,且「強死為厲,游魂為變,有所歸往,則不為災」,也就是這些人固然是忠魂,卻不是中國人壽終正寢,若不立為祀,恐怕日後變成厲鬼為害百姓。於是唐肅宗下詔立,撫恤忠烈的遺族。張巡、許遠的忠義功蹟後來又經過韓愈為文提倡,因此二人的事蹟和崇祀亦加擴大,沿著水運系統自江淮一帶傳播開來,更隨著韓愈貶官潮州傳播至潮州,成為當地的重要信仰。雖然雙忠並祀,然而相關的傳說皆以張巡為主,這與張巡身為武將,且主導對抗安史叛軍的戰事,加以他死前的誓願立誓要死而為厲鬼以抗叛賊,這些生前事蹟在在令他的神格色彩更加鮮明。
張巡在唐時已由官方追封為「成濟侯」,到宋太祖封「征應護聖使者」,這是因為在宋太祖攻打太原時,張巡曾顯靈助威。稍後又加封「濟物侯」,再封「忠懿文定武寧喜定侯」,南宋時封「東平忠靖王侯」。「東平忠靖王」或「東平王」成為後來張巡在民間的稱號。
雙忠信仰神格複雜有幾項原因,包括兩人的生平、信仰流佈範圍極廣。由於張巡、許遠為死守抗敵,曾吃人肉,加上張巡死前有死而為厲的誓言,因此張巡的神格最早是以厲鬼的形象流傳民間。這個厲鬼的形象,也使張巡化身為神之後,具有斬鬼、除瘟的職能,例如在他生前死守的江淮一帶,人們封他為都天元帥,像台灣的王爺一樣扮演除瘟的角色,甚至具有護佑航運的神格。由於掃蕩鬼疫,在《三教搜神源流》中,張巡有斬鬼張真君的稱號。另一方面,由於流傳太廣,在各地也和其它信仰混淆,例如在陝西、安徽,又被稱為通真三太子,和視為九皇爺的梁昭明太子混雜,難以分辨,在江南也有與明的張士誠信仰混淆的案例。明的《雙忠記》劇本裡,張巡、許遠還有他們的敵人安祿山,如同其它章回小說的主角,被宣告為星宿下凡,張巡、許遠分別是是亢木龍、角木蛟,安祿山則是貪狼星。此外,由於張巡忠靈的形象,宋代以後也有陪祀於東獄大帝,成為冥官的情形,洪邁的《夷堅志》裡即有〈信州營卒鄭超〉的故事提及東平忠靖王掌管人間生死,正直無私。潮州地方則有雙忠帶領陰兵幫助地方抗敵,成為地方的保護神。
雙忠信仰在臺灣的發展甚早,也有各自的不同脈絡。全臺灣雙忠信仰主要集中於北部,以台北盆地為主,大多數宇以集應為名,並有保儀尊王、大夫的稱號,這是其它地區所無,其發展和福建安溪高、張、林三姓之氏族移入台北盆地有密切關係。雲嘉地區則和道教發展式的王爺信仰有關,嘉義市的雙忠為當地最早之宇,建於康熙28年(1689),後於日治時先成為曹洞宗宇,後更遭日人合併,直到光復後重建。民雄的騎虎王則是源於張巡部屬雷春。雲林安西府則是張府千歲,和全台各地的諸府王爺類似,並至板橋、新店等地。台南地區係從金門而來,早年即建有厲王,承襲厲鬼的色彩。據統計,目前全臺有十八座左右雙忠,單單台北盆地即有十二座,其信仰分佈以北臺灣為主可見一般。各地的雙忠信仰除了形象不同外,誔辰節慶亦有出入,例如嘉義地區以12月初8為張公誔辰,5月初8為許遠誔辰。台北木柵、景美之集應則以2月初2為張公誔辰、4月初十為保儀大夫誔辰。這也說明雙忠信仰在地化的結果。
 
關鍵詞
集應、忠順、雙忠信仰、張巡、許遠
 
考文獻
  1. 陳威廷。2002。〈台南市張巡、許遠信仰研究:兼論王爺信仰的起源說〉。《台南文化》,新52:76-87。
  2. 范純武。2003。〈雙忠崇祀與中國民間信仰〉台北:台灣師範大學博士論文。


Revered King Baoyi and Cabinet Baoyi are the officials in Tang Dynasty. They are Zhang Xun (張巡,709-757)and Xu Yuan(許遠709-757). Both were killed in the An Lushan Rebellion(安史之亂, 755-763) because they warded over Sui Yang(睢陽) until the last minutes. When Sui Yang was fallen under ten month siege of rebellion, they were captured and beheaded. Their sacrifice were important to Tang royal court because they blocked the Rebellion’s march off to south and spared the time for government to fight back. Their faithfulness to Tang court was praised.
Though Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan were prasied by Tang government, the title Revered King Baoyi’s origin is not clear. Besides, whether Zhang Xun or Xu Yuan is Revered King or Cabinet Baoyi is not matched precisely. In other words, their titles are switched occasionally. Sometimes Zhang Xun is Revered King. In other cases, he was called Cabinet. In conclusion, Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan are historical figures, but their titles is only in oral tradition not proved in official records. Zhang Xun is also called Zhang Wanye(張王爺), Zhang Qiansui(張千歲) or Wan gong(尪公). Because Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan are mostly co-dedicated by temples in Northern Taiwan, they are also called “shuang zhong”(雙忠), Pair of Loyalty. However, there are also some temples only dedicated to Zhang Xun in other area of Taiwan. Apparently, the belief on Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan is in a great of diversity.
        As deities in popular religion, Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan’s character are complicated, especially on the side of Zhang Xun. To comprehend the phenomenon, their deed when they were warding off Sui Yang and the propagation being broad are the two lines. Actually, when Tang government was recovered from the rebel, the royal court did not decide to praise both of them immediately, because they cannibalized when the city was severed lack of food and many soldiers were starving and could not to battle with rebellions. Zhang Xun’s favor concubine also committed suicide to make herself as the food supply for army. Their deed shocked the officials and royal court. Considering the opinion among officials and public, Tang royal court was hard to make a decision of whether praising or not Zhang Xun’s and Xu Yuan’s sacrifice in the war. A friend of Zhang Xun, Li Han(李翰) broke the deadlock. He submitted his opinion to the emperor and argued for his friend’s merit. Besides, he emphasized that tragic dead without proper worship and got a fine destination would be harmful to the lives. On responding, the Emperor soon decreed founding a temple dedicated to them and to console and give monetary support to the descendant of the dead in the battle. Not only contemporaries propagated the sacrifice of Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan but also the followings. The famous one was Han Yu(韓愈,), a great Confucian in Tang dynasty. He rewrote a biography of them and when he was censured and dispatched to Chao Zhou(潮州). He funded the belief on Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan there. Additionally, the water transport system helped propagating the belief. As a result, the Belief on Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan became nation-wide. However, most of the stories is related to Zhang Xun because he was the commander in chief and he left a solid vow to become a fierce ghost taking revenge on the rebels before he was beheaded. Above all, the two reasons make Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan as complex deities.
Zhang Xun as a deity, he has three kinds of character. One is Wanye(王爺). Another is fierce ghost(厲鬼), related to his vow before his death. The other is tutelary deity of river. It seems that the fierce ghost came the first. Then Zhang Xun was sketched as a Wanye who could expel plague spirits or fierce ghost. Because the belief on him was popular around water transport system, then he became the deity of water blessing the safety of sailing. Zhang Xun not only kept his own identity but also was mixed or confused with other similar deities. In Sanxi(陝西) and Anhui(安徽), he was called The Third Prince Tongzen(通真三太子), who was confused with another prince in the Six Dynasty, Zhaoming(昭明) of Lian(梁) kingdom. In Jiangnan(江南) , it is hard to tell the difference between Zhang Xun and Zhang Shicheng(張士誠). Besides, he was also announced as a deity of descent constelliation. In Yijian zhi(夷堅志), edited and written by Hong Mai(洪邁, 1123-1202), he was an official under Dongyue Dadi(東嶽大帝), taking charge of person’s lives and death. At Chao Zhou, Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan are the tutelary deities.
Due to the diversities of the belief on Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan, there are also variance temples dedicated to Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan in Taiwan. Basically, the northern Taiwan, especially in Taipei basin, is the major distribution area. According to statistics, there are eighteen temples dedicated to Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan. Most of the temples dedicated to Zhang Xun and Xu Yuan are named Jiying temple(集應). There are twelve temples. The title Baoyi is also referred here. Revered King Baoyi and Cabinet Baoyi were imported into Taipei by the migrants from Anshi, Fujian. The major clans are Gao(高), Zhang(張), and Lin(林). In Yuanlin(雲林) and Jiayi(嘉義) area, the belief on Zhang Xun is majorly closed to Wanye. In Tainan(台南) area, it is still major on Zhang Xun and the character is closed to the fierce ghost. Among different areas, not only the characters of Zhang Xun but also the festivals of Zhang Xun’s birthday are diverse. Each area arranged its own celebration on the different understanding. Apparently, it is the result of the belief on Zhang Xun’s localized.
 
Keywords:
Revered King Baoyi, Cabinet Baoyi, Zhang Xun, Xu Yuan, Jiying temple,
 
Reference
  1. 陳威廷。2002。〈台南市張巡、許遠信仰研究:兼論王爺信仰的起源說〉。《台南文化》,新52:76-87。
  2. 范純武。2003。〈雙忠崇祀與中國民間信仰〉台北:台灣師範大學博士論文。
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