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高雄市文安區文興宮清水祖師(蕭翔文攝)

清水祖師(1045-1101)又稱蓬萊祖師、蓬萊老祖、烏面祖師、落鼻祖師等,俗稱「祖師公」或「祖師爺」。清水祖師本是北宋福建泉州安溪的高僧,法號普足,俗姓陳,名昭應,或作單字昭、應等,一說榮祖,福建永春人。因為生平大多在安溪清水巖修道,故稱清水祖師。
清水祖師從佛教僧人變成民間信仰的神祇,其過程與神通感應有關。根據清水祖師的傳記,他是永春地方的人士,出家於大雲院,師法於大靜山的明禪師。早年在家鄉永春一帶,以熱心於地方公益為主,造橋舖路,方便往來行旅。宋元豐六年(1083)時,因為安溪旱災嚴重,清水祖師受邀前往祈雨,甘霖普降旱象解除,安溪人乃請他常駐於安溪,並成為當地清水岩的住持,直到圓寂。傳說他在洞穴中與鬼鬥法,最後打敗鬼怪,但在鬥法過程裡被鬼薰黑了臉,故有烏面祖師的稱號。清水祖師圓寂後,單單在宋即有四次官方敕封,封號分別為「昭應大師」、「昭應慈濟大師」、「昭應廣慈惠大師」、「昭應廣惠慈濟善利大師」。由傳記推測,清水祖師由人而神的過程,祈雨靈應的事蹟居首要職能。此外,在歷代的記載中,治病、驅逐蝗蟲以及防禦盜賊等,也是清水祖師作為神祇非常重要的職能,也以這類事蹟受到相當多的封敕。
清水祖師由福建安溪移民引入,以北臺灣為主要發展地區。在臺灣也留有許多靈應事蹟,落鼻祖師的稱號即源於臺灣。關於清水祖師神像落鼻的故事有數則,據說最早在同治年間的地震,當時祖師像正在石門地區繞境,祖師像的鼻子突然掉落,引來大眾圍觀之際,地震來襲震垮許多房舍,人們卻因圍觀神像而逃過一劫。另外一則是關於艋舺和淡水的清水巖祖師像之爭,兩地的清水巖皆主張擁有落鼻祖師神像,因為清時中法戰爭間,清水祖師神像顯神蹟護佑助威,使得清軍打敗法軍,但事後清水祖師卻未回到己方。最後在雙方協調下,變成由艋舺與淡水輪流奉祀。不論如何,目前五月初五和六的清水祖師聖誔,此大拜拜已經成為淡水當地重要的節慶。
        以清水祖師為主祀神的宇不少,多數名稱皆加有「巖」字,著名者以大台北地區為主,包括三峽長福巖祖師、艋舺清水巖、淡水清水巖等三大祖師,號稱台北三大祖師。艋舺清水祖師的宗教實踐特色之一是祖師像-落鼻祖師,即蓬萊老祖,此神像本是私人家中奉祀的神像,因為中法戰爭中顯神蹟,助淡水駐軍打敗法軍,被移祀中,後來成為艋舺和淡水清水巖的爭議後,神像變成經年不在中,而是受各地輪流迎請奉祀,包括聚落、個人等等,以各地的「客神」受奉祀。三峽祖師則以過去由美術家李梅樹主導的精美修建石彫和每年盛大的賽豬公儀式知名。
 
關鍵字
清水祖師、落鼻祖師、祖師、安溪、清水巖
考資料
  1. 辜神徹。2009。《台灣清水祖師信仰--落鼻祖師的歷史與文化》。台北:博揚文化。
  2. 林國平。1999。清水祖師信仰探索。《圓光佛學學報》。第四(1999.12),頁217-251。

Qingshui Zushi (清水祖師, 1045-1101), the Master of Clear Water, is known locally as Zushi-Gong (袓師公) in Taipei basin. He was a Buddhist monk in Northern Sung dynasty and born in Yongchun(永春), Fujian(福建) and stayed at Qingshui(清水), Anshi(安溪) during most of his life until he was dead. That is why he called Qingshui Zushi.
        The story of Qingshui Zushi from a Buddhist monk becoming a deity of popular religion is related to the magical power of him. According to his biography, Qingshui Zushi became a monk in Dawun temple(大雲院). Later, he went to be the Zen Master Ming(明禪師)’s disciple in Dajinsan(大靜山). After he was enlightened, he was devoted to benefiting social by constructing bridges and paving roads. When it was 1083, a drought caused severe damage at Anshi(安溪). Master was invited by the people of to pray rain for Anshi. Qingshui Zushi made it and he was well known of his magical power. People in Anshi asked him to stay and be the abbot of Qingshui yen(清水巖). Qingshui Zushi stays there until he was dead.
        There are many magical stories about Qingshui Zushi. Qingshui Zushi is also called Wumin Zushi(烏面祖師), the Dark Face Master, because he fights with a ghost in a cave. He defeat the ghost. However, in the fighting, the ghost sets a fire to smoke out Master. Though it does not work but Master’s face becoming dark. As a monk with magical power, it is the major factor of Qingshui Zushi transforming from a Buddhist monk to a deity of popular religion. Regarding to the records about Qingshui Zushi in the following dynasty, when there was a drought, plague, locust plague, grouped outlaws, Qingshui Zushi as a deity was prayed by people. Apparently, protecting people from the disaster is the main function of Qingshui Zushi as a deity.
        In Taiwan, the belief on Qingshui Zushi was introduced by the residents from Anshi, the area where Qingshui Zushi originated. Qingshui Zushi also presented his magical power in Taiwan and got his other title. Qingshui Zushi was called Luobi Master(落鼻祖師, the Master dropping nose). It was said that in the Tongzhi period. An earthquake happened. At the same time, the statue of Qingshui Zushi was carried in a procession circled Shiman(石門, Stone Gate), in the Northern Taiwan. Because the statue’s nose of Qingshui Zushi was dropped suddenly, people was seeing the event and not staying home when earthquake happened. People escaped from the accident. People thought it a grace from Qingshui Zushi and named him as Luobi Master. It was also said that the statue of Qingshui Zushi dropped its nose when there was the Battle between Qing(清) and France. As a result, Taiwan army defeated French navy. It could be said that the name, Luobi Master, represented Qingshui Zushi indeed localized in Taiwan.
        Most of the temples dedicated to Qingshui Zushi are located in the northern Taiwan. There are three major temples. They are Changfu yen(長福巖) in Sanxia(三峽), Qingshui yen (清水巖) in Manka(艋舺) and Dansui(淡水). They are also called Zushi temple. Zushi temples in Dansui and Sanxia are famous of the huge festival. Changfu yen is famous of Thai Di Gong(殺豬公) festival.
 
Keywords:
Qingshui Zushi, Luobi Master, Qingshui yen
 
考資料
  1. 辜神徹。2009。《台灣清水祖師信仰--落鼻祖師的歷史與文化》。台北:博揚文化。
  2. 林國平。1999。清水祖師信仰探索。《圓光佛學學報》。第四(1999.12),頁217-251。
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