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臺北市中山區行天宮關聖帝君(陳美華攝)

關聖帝君又稱協天大帝、文衡聖帝,關帝爺、帝君爺,關公、恩主公、恩主等,佛教稱為伽藍,即護法神之意。關聖帝君也是多種行業的行業神,包括讀書人的文昌神、軍警的戰神、商人的財神,乃至幫會的主神。在臺灣,關聖帝君近年來還被某些團體昇格為玉皇大帝,受原來玉帝的禪讓成為天公。關聖帝君是華人世界裡相當普遍的神祇。
關聖帝君生前最早的記載存於《三國志》,東漢末年河東郡解縣人,即今山西省臨猗縣,時值黃巾作亂,四處劫掠殺戮,各地方只能仰賴自組的區域民團武力以求自保,當時屬於皇室旁支淪落至平民的劉備也聚眾成事,關羽和張飛加入劉備的團體,三人義結金蘭。劉備主持的團體雖以皇室正統自居,但因勢力薄弱,發展初被曹操擊潰,關羽於是成為曹操的俘虜,為曹操出戰。在關羽打敗另一軍閥袁紹的大將顏良、文醜之後,曹操讓關羽回到劉備的麾下,遂其不背棄結義兄弟的意志。重情義後來成為關羽神化中的重要元素之一。幾經波折,劉備的勢力終能茁壯,和南方吳國的孫權結盟並打敗曹操,成為東漢末年的三國之一。然而,關羽也因為其勢壯盛,駐守荊州,最後終因曹操用計,使他兵敗於吳國,被俘斬首。關羽的死亡也是蜀國命運的轉捩點,結義兄弟劉備和張飛皆因試圖為關羽復仇,切斷原有與吳國結盟的外交政策,以致國勢衰敗。這些故事後來成為流行小說《三國演義》中的重要素材,使得關羽神化的故事更添色彩。
關羽作為悲劇英雄,牽動當時的國際局勢,生前的功業和死後的影響都是他神化的重要基礎。據說在他死後不久,從他的出生地山西解縣和駐守地荊州玉泉山即為他立有祀。研究考察推測,關羽成神應當始於湖北當陽縣荊門地區,這是他被斬首的地方。傳說他曾顯靈於佛教天台山的僧人智顗(538-597)面前,要找回他失去的頭顱,經過智顗的開導,他歸依佛教,成為佛教的護法神。根據碑文記錄,至少到中唐時,關羽已經成為佛教天台宗裡的護法神。宗真宗(1014)時,道士王欽若則創造張天師召關羽驅逐蚩尤,為地方除害的故事,並封關羽為道教崇寧真君。宋哲宗(1096)時,勅封為顯烈,宗徽宗時更成為忠惠公,後來又陸續加封,到南宋時,成為英濟王。佛道教的影響,加以羅貫中的《三國演義》和地方戲曲的流傳,還有政治上歷經宋、元、明、清的提倡,在清時,關聖帝君已是軍人的守護神,賜號忠義神武靈佑關聖大帝,其是每縣普設的武。隨著時代變遷,神化的關羽逐漸擴散到整個華人世界之中,到了民國時,關羽甚至成為儒教的重要神祇。
早在明鄭時,臺灣即有至少有八座關帝,最早的一座是在台南市中區的大關帝。日治時約有132座,但因關聖帝君涉及民族意識,日本殖民政府對於以關聖帝君為主祀神的儒宗神教格外留意,1937年以後開始的皇民化運動,全臺被廢的關帝約在57座之間,佔總數二分之一。1945年臺灣光復後則回昇,據1959年的統計,約有192座。關聖帝君的傳佈極廣,影響也深,例如臺北的行天宮,其雖然立於1932年,但火鼎盛的程度不下於古剎龍山寺。甚至東沙島上也有關帝,名大王,源於一漂流至該島的關公像於1948年建奉祀,由當地的軍官出任公,關聖帝君的信仰可見一般。此外,關聖帝君的信仰者也成立有全國性社團,名中華道教關聖帝君弘道協會。


新竹市東區普天宮(陳美華攝)


臺南市中西區開基武關聖帝君文衡聖帝(陳美華攝)


臺南市中西區開基武關聖帝君文衡聖帝(陳美華攝)

 
 
關鍵詞
關聖帝君、關公、恩主、財神
 
考資料
  1. 黃華節。1968。《關公的人格與神格》。台北:台灣商務印書館。
  2. 自立晚報。1994。《臺灣宇文化大系-關聖帝君卷》。台北:自立晚報文化出版社。
  3. 王志宇。1997。《台灣的恩主公信仰》。台北:文津。
 
進階閱讀
  1. 王見川、蘇慶華、劉文星編。2010。《近代的關帝信仰與經典 : 兼談其在新.馬發展》。臺北市 : 博揚文化。
  2. Duara, Prasenjit。Superscribing Symbols: The Myth of Guandi, Chinese God of War’, The Journal of Asian Studies 47:4 (11/1988) 。中譯版:杜贊奇。〈刻劃標誌:中國戰神關帝的神話〉。載於韋思諦編,陳仲丹譯。2006。《中國大眾宗教》,頁93-113。

The Holy Emperor Guan(關聖帝君), Guan Yu(關羽), is also known as Guandi(關帝) or Guan gong(關公) . Guan Yu as a historical figure was a great general in the Three Kingdoms(三國時,190-280). He fought for his Sworn brothers Liu Bei(劉備). Today, Guan Yu is an important deity not only in popular religion but also in Buddhism and Taoism. He is called Qienlan shen(伽藍神), the tutelary deity of Buddhist monastery. In popular religion, he is Enzhu gong(恩主公). He even gets promotion recently. Some groups of popular religion in Taiwan announced he is Jade Emperor today. The original one abdicated and gave the crown to him, an index corresponding to the era of democracy. He is also the tutelary deity of merchant, army, police, and even the gangs. It is no doubt that Guan Yu is one of the Chinese popular deities.
The life of Guan Yu is written in Records of Three Kingdoms(三國志). He was born in Shanxi(山西), by the end the Eastern Han. Then, the Yellow Turban Rebellion (黃巾之亂) burst out. All the autonomy in the Eastern Han empire organized their own armaments to defend themselves under a leader. Guan Yu’s sworn brother, Liu Bei, is one of them. Liu Bei belongs to the imperial family, who was poor and tiny family. However, Liu Bei, Zhang Fei(張飛), and Guan Yu were sworn brothers and waved the Han orthodoxy flag calling people joining them. As a result, they only organized a small autonomy armed group which could not against Cao Cao(曹操)’s group. Cao Cao defeated them and Guan Yu was captured as a captive. Guan Yu fought for Cao Cao briefly as ransom. Finally, Guan Yu rejoined Liu Bei’s group again. Liu Bei’s group was founded their own kingdom Shu(蜀) and Guan Yu became marshal and garrisoned Jing Zho(荊州). Because his powerful arm forced, the other two kingdoms, Cai Wei(曹魏) and Wu(吳), made a conspiracy to defeat Guan Yu. Guan Yu was fail and beheaded by Wu. Guan Yu’s death also caused his two sworn brothers Liu Bei and Zhang Fei being died soon. Both of them were failing the revenge action against Wu. The Shu was also defeated by Wei(魏). The history of Three Kingdoms was rewritten by Luo Guanzhong (羅貫中) as novel, titled with Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In this novel, the character of Guan Yu was shaped as a powerful marshal and full of faithfulness and passion.
Not long after Guan Yu was dead, the temples dedicated to him were funded at his birthplace, Shanxi, and the place where he failed and beheaded, Jing Zho. It was speculated that the starting point at Jing Zho according to studies. It was also said his ghost had be reveal himself in front of the Buddhist monk, Zhi Yi(智顗, 538-597) and asked his lost head. Zhi Yi smoothed the ghost’s angry and made him becoming the tutelary deity of Buddhist monastery. According to the inscription on steles, it was not late by Middle Tang Dynasty, Guan Yu had became Buddhist tutelary deity. In Sung Dynasty, Guan Yu also became Taoist deity. Taoist Wang Qinruo(王欽若) described Guan Yu as a ghost was summoned by the Celestial Master Zhang(張天師) to expel the ghost of Chi you(蚩尤), the enemy of Huang Di(黃帝). As a result, Emperor Zhen Zhong(真宗) decreed Guan Yu as Chongning Zhenjun(崇寧真君). By the end of Song Dynasty, Guan Yu was titled as King Yingji(英濟王). Under the influence and propagation of Taoism and Buddhism, plus the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, moreover, the political promotion, Guan Yu already became a national wide deity. The temples dedicated to Guan Yu were established in every county. His title became more longer, as the Holly Emperor Guan of Royal, Overwhelming and Spiritual Beneficence(忠義神武靈佑關聖大帝). As a result, Guan Yu as a deity is almost everywhere where Chinese reside today. He even becomes the main deity of religious Confucianism.
In Taiwan, there were eight temples dedicated to Guan Yu at least in Ming Dynasty. When it was under Japan reign, the belief on Guan Yu was restricted because of Guan Yu relating to identity of Chinese. When the Japanization  movement (皇民化運動) began in 1937, there were about 57 temples dedicated to Guan Yu abolished. A number is half of total. After 1945, the number rose again. It was estimate 192 temples in 1959.
Not only the temples dedicated to Guan Yu gather much people, but also the influence runs deep and wide. For example, Hsing Tian Kong(行天宮), a temple dedicated Guan Yu, funded in Taipei, 1932. It’s popularity in not beneath another ancient and famous temple, Mengjia Longshan Temple(龍山寺), a temple dedicated to Kuanyin(觀音), funded in 1738. Another vivid example is there is a Guan Yu’s temple funded in the Dongsha Islands(東沙島, Pratas Islands). The island is about 400 kilometers from Taiwan and only resided by army. Besides, the believer organized an national association as well, named The Mission Association of the Holly Emperor Guan in Chinese Taoism(中華道教關聖帝君弘道協會).
 
Keywords:
The Holy Emperor Guan, Guan Yu, Hsing Tian Kong
 
考資料
  1. 黃華節。1968。《關公的人格與神格》。台北:台灣商務印書館。
  2. 自立晚報。1994。《臺灣宇文化大系-關聖帝君卷》。台北:自立晚報文化出版社。
  3. 王志宇。1997。《台灣的恩主公信仰》。台北:文津。
 
進階閱讀
1.王見川、蘇慶華、劉文星編。2010。《近代的關帝信仰與經典 : 兼談其在新.馬發展》。臺北市 : 博揚文化。
2.Duara, Prasenjit。Superscribing Symbols: The Myth of Guandi, Chinese God of War’, The Journal of Asian Studies 47:4 (11/1988) 。中譯:杜贊奇。〈刻劃標誌:中國戰神關帝的神話〉。載於韋思諦編,陳仲丹譯。2006。《中國大眾宗教》,頁93-113。
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