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臺北市大同區法主真君法主公 (陳美華攝)

法主公,真正的頭銜是「都天蕩魔監雷御史張聖法主真君」,簡稱「法主聖君」、「都天聖君」、「張聖者」等,俗稱法主公,客家族群裡稱「聖君爺」,南北宋之間的文獻以張聖者著稱,又作張圓覺、張鋤柄。法主公生前名張,名自觀或慈觀,字沙,生前活躍於福建地區,是一位介乎佛、道和民間宗教的法術師,和以陳靖姑為主的三奶派,都是臺灣民間一般稱為紅頭法師的「閭山教」或「閭山派」,閭山教是流行於福建福州、泉州等地的法派,亦有部分人士將之歸類於道教正一派。
關於法主公的生卒年目前仍未確定,根據明的文獻,一說張法主生於南宋紹興九年(1139),淳熙十年(1183)羽化成仙。較新的見解是根據《金華張氏歷代祖宗人文事蹟實錄世系總譜記》、《夷堅志》及其他史有可考的相關人士生卒年推估,法主公北宋天聖二年(1024)生,卒年不定,紹興二十九年左右仍活躍於福建地區。出生地各研究的共識是福建永泰縣嵩口鎮月洲村。
法主公相貌奇醜,口能容拳,自幼家貧,以放牛或收集薪材和作鋤頭柄販賣維生,因此有「張鋤柄」的稱號,據說在十歲那年他在山中巧遇下棋的仙人鍾權離,仙人授他與仙桃或竹筍,張法主吃後身體輕健,飄欲若仙,之後即不食五穀,以草木的實為食,且忽然之間即能預言未來,識字和書寫,據說曾出家為僧,居白雲寺,修持瑜伽法,即密宗,號張聖者。之後即遊歷福建各地,為人祈雨、治病、除妖,最後石牛山九龍潭羽化成仙,昇天被玉帝封為「監雷真聖君」。張慈觀在明由正德皇帝封為法主公。
法主公的信仰和各地區的信仰結合,組成不同的信仰群體,例如在福州的組合是張、蕭、連三位聖君,在德化是張、蕭、章三姓,在永春、安溪一帶是張蕭黃,在漳平一帶是張、蕭,加上吳公,也就是吾人熟悉的保生大帝。在這些不同的傳說中,經常提及法主公和諸位聖者前往閭山許真君處習法,並遇到佛教龍樹菩薩傳法,是為閭山教描述其傳承的特徵。唯另有一說主張法主公和許真君的連結是為依附閭山而有,是以閭山教又分為三奶派與法主公派,三奶派以許真君為法主,法主公派則以張聖君為法主。法主公也和民間重要的五營兵將有關,乃是東營的主帥。民間的許多神實行的法術,都和閭山教有關,例如請神、送煞、消災、調撥五營兵將、收魂、蓋魂、過火等,有其獨立的儀式程序。
臺灣主祀法主公的宇超過五十座,隨處可見的神,則大約在四百家以上。法主公的信仰隨臺灣的移民前後順序不同,有各自所屬的傳承分佈各處。宇包括雲林麥寮玉安宮、台南學甲慶安宮、嘉義鹿草永泰宮、宜蘭蘇澳的晉安宮,還有新竹市和台北市的法主公等,都是歷史悠久的宇。
 
關鍵詞:法主公、張聖君、閭山教、聖君爺
 
考資料
  1. 葉明生。《閩台張聖君信仰文化》。福州:海潮音出版社。2008。
  2. 王見川。2007。《從僧侶到神明-定光古佛、法主公、普庵之研究》。中壢:圓光佛學研究所。
  3. 金清海。2008。〈臺灣地區張聖君法主公信仰文化源流及現況探究〉。《成大宗教與文化學報》。6:頁111-143。
  4. 張二文。2008。《客家「聖君爺」信仰及其傳說流變調查研究 -以聖君、法主公、五營信仰之關係為主》。臺灣:行政院客家委員會奬助論文。
  5. 劉枝。2001。〈閭山教之收魂法〉於《中國民間信仰論集》。台北:中研院民族所。頁207-418。


Fazhu gong is also called Zhang Shengzhe(張聖者). His full title is “Dou Tian Dang mo jian lei yu shih jhang sheng fa jhu jhen jyun fa jhu gong”(都天蕩魔監雷御史張聖法主真君法主公). Fazhu gong’s real name was Zhang Zihguan(張自觀), a dynamic exorcist in Fujian. His religious identity was mixed with Taoism and Buddhism. The religious teaching he practiced is called Lushan Jiao(閭山教), a school or teaching from Mount Lu, a mysterious mountain. Lushan school is a teaching related to popular religion. However, it was regarded as a teaching belong to Taoist True One school(正一派).
The precise dates when Fazhu gong was born and died are not sure. Regarding to the article in Ming dynasty, it was said that he was born in 1139, and died in 1183. Some new evidence shows that he was born in 1024 and died undated. One thing can be sure, he was born in Yuezhou village(月州村), Yongtai county(永泰縣), Fujian(福建).
In the light of Fazhu gong’s biography, he was ugly and had a big mouth which a fist could be put into. He was poor and made living by pasturing and collecting firewood. He was also good at making the handle of hoe. So he was nicknamed as Zhang Chubin(張鋤柄, the Zhang good at hoe’s handle). It was said that he had met with Zhong Liquan(鍾離權) when he was ten years old. Zhong gave him a magical peach or bamboo shoot. After he ate it, he became more health and strong, walking swift and not eating any grain for good. He also made prophecy and became literate. After a while, he became a Buddhist monk and practice Tantra Buddhism. Until he was mastering on the teaching, he travelled around Fujian and practice rain surmoning, healing the sickness, exorcist the demon. Finally, he was died in Jiu Long Lake(九龍潭), on Shiniu(石牛) mountain. Jade Emperor decreed him as Jian Lei zhen sheng jun(監雷真聖君, the True Saint Commanding Thunder). In Ming Dynasty, he was titled as Fazhu gong.
After the belief on and practicing of Fazhu gong were spread, Fazhu gong’s teaching is imbedded with the local belief where it was spread. For example, in Fujou(福州), Fazhu gong is combined with the other two Shengzhe(聖者). They are Fazhu gong, Saint Xiao(蕭聖者), and Saint Lian(連聖者). There are also other combinations. In Zhangping (漳平) area, Fazhu gong is even combined with Wu gong(吳公), namely, Bao Sheng Dadi(保生大帝), who is another popular deity in Taiwan.
Among the various Fazhu Gong‘s legend, there is a main plot. Fazhu Gong not only learned the exorcist from Xu xun(許遜, 239-374) in Lu Mountain but also met Nagarjuna(龍樹, Dragon Tree, 150-250), who was a Buddhist figure in India, and learned Tantra Buddhism from him. Apparently, it is impossible. Some scholar thought that the story is just a strategy to make the school of Fazhu Gong standing. That is the reason why there are two main cults of Lu shan jiao. One is Sannai cult(三奶派), which regard Xu xun as the Great Patriarch. Another is Fazhu gong cult(法主公派) which sees Fazhu gong, Zhang Shengzhe, as the Great Patriach.
Fazhu gong is also as a deity in the system, Wuying(五營). Wuying has five camps which they are soldier of the netherworld. Fazhu gong is the commander of the Eastern Camp, that has Green banner. There are many private shrines practicing ritual related to Wuying. They are in relation with the Lushan school.
In Taiwan, the shrines dedicated to Fazhu gong are about 400. The temples dedicated to Fazhu gong are over fifty. The famous are Yuan temple(玉安宮) in Yunlin(雲林), Qingan temple (慶安宮) in Tainan, Yongtai temple(永泰宮) in Chiayi(嘉義), Jinan temple(晉安宮) in Yilan(宜蘭), and the Fazhu temple (法主公) in Taipei and Xinchu(新竹).
 
Keywords:
Fazhu gong, Lushan Jiao, Zhang Shengzhe
 
考資料
  1. 葉明生。《閩台張聖君信仰文化》。福州:海潮音出版社。2008。
  2. 王見川。2007。《從僧侶到神明-定光古佛、法主公、普庵之研究》。中壢:圓光佛學研究所。
  3. 金清海。2008。〈臺灣地區張聖君法主公信仰文化源流及現況探究〉。《成大宗教與文化學報》。6:頁111-143。
  4. 張二文。2008。《客家「聖君爺」信仰及其傳說流變調查研究 -以聖君、法主公、五營信仰之關係為主》。臺灣:行政院客家委員會奬助論文。
  5. 劉枝。2001。〈閭山教之收魂法〉於《中國民間信仰論集》。台北:中研院民族所。頁207-418。
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