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臺北市大同區黃帝神宮黃帝 (陳美華攝)

黃帝位中國三皇五帝之首,是開中華文明的人物,也是傳說的文化和政治英雄。根據《史記》記載,黃帝姓公孫,因為住在軒轅之丘,所以號軒轅氏,也因為居住在姬水,又改姓姬。其國度在「有熊」地方,故又稱有熊氏。此外,尚有帝鴻氏帝軒氏縉雲氏等稱呼,這都和黃帝相關傳說有關。黃帝的稱號可從兩方面加以解釋,黃和黃帝代表的五行和方位屬性有關,因黃帝在五方裡位居中央,屬土,以黃色象徵。此外,黃字通皇,有大、天等意思,帝則通用於宗教和世界的主宰。因此黃帝通皇帝,也有大帝、天帝的意思,按其稱號,黃帝是遠古中國的政教領袖。
        關於黃帝的傳說相當多,包括他打敗蚩尤,妻子螺祖開始養蠶取絲、製作衣裳,他的史官倉頡創造了最早的中文字。此外,黃帝還精通醫術,古代的醫書經常以之為名。傳說最後他還成仙,騎著龍飛上了天,因此,他也是仙人的開端。這些故事都使得黃帝有著相當多元的面向。關於黃帝傳說的主要來源包括《史記》、《神仙傳》、《黃帝四經》、《莊子》等,這些文獻相當程度保留了關於黃帝傳說的各種面向。根據研究,黃帝這些多元的面向大致可分為三個部分,與其發展歷史和地域有關,一支源於中國西北的秦國,秦國追溯其祖先至少皞,經由將黃帝神化,成為古代諸神的中心,則秦國繼承周王的傳承則有其正當性。另一方面,源於中國東邊的傳統裡,黃帝是古代君主的重要典範,也是道術的實踐者,這一支的發展即是吾人現在熟悉的「黃老之術」傳統。在漢,這兩支的發展合而為一,成為現今《史記》中的記載,加上各種文獻不同的記錄,如《莊子》裡和臣子們對話的黃帝,還有《黃帝內經》、馬王堆出土的《黃帝四經》等記載。簡言之,黃帝傳說發展開端甚早,且影響久遠,是以今天華人也自稱「炎黃子孫」。
        由於黃帝有著強烈的政治正統意義,以黃帝為敬拜對象經常和政治權力有關,民間雖有諸多文化聯結黃帝,祭祀黃帝並不普及,然而,至民國時此種情況有所不同。1957年中國國民黨籍的立委王寒生在臺灣創立軒轅教,主張崇祀軒轅黃帝,重振中華文化,總部設於臺北市大同區黃帝神宮,各地之分支機構也多名為黃帝神宮。日常儀式為早晚誦經,禱告,年度有三次節慶大典,分別是農曆 1 月 1 日祭天, 3月3日黃帝聖誕, 9月9日黃帝昇天,這三日實行戒、三獻。此外,也有其它少數以黃帝為主祀神的宇,如雲林的斗六的無極開基黃帝玉寶殿。



新竹市北區黃帝神宮黃帝(陳美華攝)

 
中文關鍵字
軒轅,黃帝、軒轅教
 
考資料
1.鄭素春。2006。〈道教仙傳中的黃帝〉。《輔仁宗教研究》,14:頁67-96。
2.李世偉、王見川。 2000 。〈臺灣軒轅教的考察〉。收於《臺灣的民間宗教與信仰》。臺北:博陽文化。


Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor, a legendary figure who started Chinese civilization is a cultural and political hero. Huangdi has various names. According to Shiji(史記, The Records of the Grand Historian), Huangdi’s last name is Kongshung(公孫), and because of his resident in the hill of Xuanyuan(軒轅), he is also named as Xuanyuan. He ever lived near the Ji river(姬水), then he changed his first name to Ji(姬). His kindom is at Youiong(有熊), meaning a place where bear residing. His last name is also called Youiong. All his name is related to his legend and resident area. About the name of Huangdi, the meaning of Huangdi could be explained in two ways. Huang, yellow color, is related to the Five elements’(五行) attribute. Yellow’s attribute is in the center and the earth which is the highest element. Huang also has a co-meaning with another word Huang(皇). This word means great and heaven. Di(帝) is a word that means the ruler of religious and profane world. Huangdi, the combination words of Huang and Di, means the Great Emperor and the Emperor of Heaven. In other words, Huangdi is an ancient religious and political leader.
        There are many genesis legend of Chinese civilization about Huangdi. He defeated Chi you(蚩尤) and founded the order of various clan. His wife, the first queen in Chinese history, started raise silkworm and took silk to make cloth. His cabinet in history, Cangjie(倉頡), create Chinese character. Besides, Huangdi is master in medical, many ancient medical book titled with his name. It is said that he finally became a divinity and rode on a dragon and flied to the heaven. In other words, Huangdi is also the first Taoist. The legends of Huangdi are majorly from Shiji, Shenxian chuan(神仙傳, The Biography of Immortals》, The Four Scriptures of Huangdi (黃帝四經), and Zhuangzi(莊子)etc. Basically, the facets of of Huangdi come from three threads. The first originates from the north-western China, Chin(秦) kingdom. Chin court argues that their ancestor is Shaogou(少皞), one descent of Huangdi. Based on this relation, Chin inherited Chou(周) kingdom righteously. The second is from the east of China. Huangdi is not only a paradigm of emperor but also a devotee of Taoism. As we known, the lineage from the east became the tradition of Huang-Lao(黃老之術). In Han dynasty, these two lineages are mixed and became the records on the later literatures that we are familiar with.
        Regarding to Huangdi’s political tight connection, populace worshiped to Huangdi was rare when it was federal period. Until recently, the era of democratic comes, some group dedicated to Huangdi are established. In Taiwan, a cult called Xuanyuan jiao(軒轅教) was funded in 1957 by a legislator named Wang Hansheng(王寒生). Xuanyuan jiao’s goal is recovering Chinese cultural by worshiping to Huangdi. Besides, there are also few temples dedicated to Huangdi.
Keywords:
Xuanyuan, Yellow Emperor, Yellow Lord, Xuanyuanjiao
 
考資料
1.鄭素春。2006。〈道教仙傳中的黃帝〉。《輔仁宗教研究》,14:頁67-96。
2.李世偉、王見川。 2000 。〈臺灣軒轅教的考察〉。收於《臺灣的民間宗教與信仰》。臺北:博陽文化。
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