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孔明先聖(Kongming Xiansheng)
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新竹市東區靈隱寺孔明先聖(陳美華攝)

孔明是諸葛亮(181-234)的字,又稱臥龍或伏龍、「諸葛武侯」等,東漢末三國時蜀國宰相,死後封忠武侯,所以最早崇祀他的作「武侯」。
諸葛亮在世時最主要的成就,就是年僅二十多歲,卻能協助劉備為勢力微弱的蜀國奠定基礎,經由他的「聯吳抗曹」策略,結合吳國在赤壁以少勝多,打敗勢如日中天的曹操大軍,留下赤壁之戰的不朽故事。君主劉備過世後,又一心輔佐少主劉禪維持蜀國,鞠躬盡瘁,死而後已。因此,諸葛亮既是政治家,也是優秀的軍事家。由於他在蜀國的貢獻,在他死後蜀國居民即為他立奉祀,最早的武侯可能成於陝西地區,後來則以四川成都的武侯最為知名,杜甫曾有詩句〈蜀相〉吟詠。諸葛亮的生平後來經過通俗小說《三國演義》和戲曲等流行文化,諸葛亮變成一位上知天文、下知地理,能預知未來的神奇人士,總是羽扇綸巾,一派從容的出入各地,能預知天氣,草船借箭、火燒曹軍,精通奇門遁甲,布八陣圖疑惑敵軍,還發明神奇的木流牛馬,來往運送軍輸。
由於孔明神奇的能力,臺灣民間認為他能發明利生,所以有些物品也以之為名,例如腳踏車稱「孔明車」、非常流行的天燈也被認為是諸葛亮所發明,又稱「孔明燈」。雖然民間的孔明有諸多面向,展現他通曉天、地、人三才的神異能力,但在臺灣以孔明為主祀者仍屬少數,僅有新竹市青草湖靈隱寺、南投啟示玄機院等,台中市近年似乎也成立有孔明址目前暫位於北屯區。青草湖靈隱寺是佛教寺院,寺中亦有許多日治時新竹神社的建築,是當地的名勝。啟示玄機院成立於1901年,位於南投魚池鄉,立有號稱亞洲最高之孔明像。
 
關鍵詞:諸葛亮、孔明、新竹靈隱寺、魚玄啟示玄機院
 
考網站
1.日月潭 (另開新視窗) http://www.sunmoonlake.gov.tw/,於2011年12月讀取。


Kongming Xiansheng is Zhuge Liang(諸葛亮,181-234) , the prime minister of Shu in the Era of Three kingdom. He is also called Wolong(臥龍). After he was dead, the title he awarded is ZhongWu Ho(忠武侯), Duke with Loyal and Brave. That is the reason the first temple dedicated to him named the temple of Wuho(武侯).
The major achievement Zhuge Liang succeeded in was assisting Liu Bei founding weak Shu state among the powerful warlords. It is almost incredible that he made them when he was very young, only over twenty years old. He set the strategy for Liu Bei to forge an alliance between Shu and Wu. Their alliance defeated the most powerful warlod Cao Cao(曹操). Zhuge Liang, as a powerful and wise prime minister, not only assisted Liu Bei but also Liu Bei’s incompetent son. All his life, he was loyal to Shu state and Liu’s family. He is a great politician and brilliant strategist. Not long after he was dead, people of Shu state founded the temples dedicated to him for memorizing his grace. The first temple might be established around Shanxi(陝西). The history in the Three Kingdom period was furnished by Luo Guanzhong(羅貫中) becoming the Romance of Three Kingdom. Under the novel’s influencing, Zhuge Liang is well known as a Confucian and Taoist scholar, wear a blue scarf, holds a feather fan. He could precisely predicate future and make weather forecast. He set a battle array by stone and confused the enemy. He was even a inventor, created a magical vehicle transporting the supply of army. In other words, the novel made him being a man with miraculous power.
Because Zhuge Liang’s role in the novel. He was called Kongming Xiansheng and regarded as an inventor. For example, bicycle in Taiwan called Kongmin vehicle and sky lantern called Kongmin lantern are the cases. They are named with Kongmin because people thought that Kongming invented them. Though Kongmin’s popular facets are magical and almost supernatural, the temples dedicated to him are rare in Taiwan. The most famous is Linyin temple(靈隱寺) by Qingcao lake(青草湖), Xinzhu(新竹), funded in 1930. Another temple was at Nantou(南投), named Qishi xuanji temple(啟示玄機院), and funded in 1901.
 
Keywords:
Kongming Xiansheng, Zhuge Liang, Linyin temple, Qishi xuanji temple
 
考網站
1.日月潭 (另開新視窗) http://www.sunmoonlake.gov.tw/,於2011年12月讀取。
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