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新北縣新店區開天宮盤古公(陳美華攝)

盤古公即盤古,又稱盤古聖帝、盤古聖祖等,是中國神話裡開天闢地的人物。盤古最早的神話記載於三國時吳國徐整所著《三五歷記》,故事描述古代的創世觀,古人認為天地未開之時宛如雞蛋一片混沌,人類祖先盤古誔生其間。經過一八千年天地開始分離,間盤古每長高一丈,天地就分開一丈。盤古作為天地初開第一人,死後氣息化成風雲,聲音變成雷聲,眼睛成為日月,四肢和身體成大地和山,血液成為河川,肌肉化土壤,身上種種皆成宇宙物,身內的各種蟲,被風吹襲後成為人類。此為盤古開天闢地神話。
盤古的傳說後來被道教吸納,名叫盤古真人,也就是道教的神仙,又作元始天尊,元始天王。根據葛洪的《枕中書》,天地未分前,由天地精華育孕的盤古已在其中,且自號元始天王。天地始開後,他遇到聖女太元,喜愛其貞潔,化作青光入其口中,使之受孕,十二年後盤古從太元的背脊出生,出生後有彩雲護身的瑞相。在陶弘景《真靈位業圖》裡,眾神仙要按時覲元始天尊,號「玉清紫虛高上元皇太上大道君」。《述異記》裡還指出,盤古的墓地在南海。
        自古即有主祀盤古的宇,四川稱盤古或盤古三郎。《歲時習俗資料彙編》載古以十月十六日為盤古誔辰,湖南湖北一帶認為因為盤古誔生即開天闢地之時,節氣正巧是陰陽始分之日。臺灣民間宇中,主祀盤古者不多,視主祀元始天尊等同主祀盤古,例如新店開天宮、新竹五指山盤古、開天宮、臺南玉井的大王宮和盤古殿,還有新化的盤古王等。
 
關鍵詞:元始天尊、盤古公


Pangu Gong is Pangu, the primal human in Chinese history. He is also called . The first record about Pangu is in the Three kingdom period(三國時代). In Sanwu liji(三五歷記), written by Xu Zheng(徐整), the genesis of the universe is described. It is said that at the beginning, the universe is in chaos, just like an egg. When the heaven and the earth begin to separate, Pangu is born and grew up at the same time. Finally, Pangu is as high as the distance between the heaven and the earth. After Pangu is dead, his eyes become the sun and the moon. Thunder comes from his voice. Cloud and wind is from his breath. His body and limbs become the ground and mountain. The blood of him runs to shape the river. His flesh transforms to the soil. The insect inside his body become human. Everything in the universe comes from Pangu. This is the myth of Pangu.
Later, the myth is absorbed by Taoism. Pangu is named the True Man Pangu(真人盤古) and becomes Yuanshi tianzun (元始天尊) the highest god in Daoism. In the light of Ge hong’s (葛洪) Zhen-zhong shu (枕中書), the Book in the Pillow, before the universe was created, Pan Gu was already pregnant by heaven and earth and he titled himself as Yuan-shi tian-wang (元始天王), the Primal Divine King. After he got out from the cosmic egg, he met the saint lady Tai-yuan (聖女太元) and transformed himself as a green light into her stomach to make her pregnant. After twelve years, Pan Gu was born as a flesh human. No matter where he went to, there is a colorful cloud above him as a protection. It is an auspicious sign. According to the Zhenling weiye tu (真靈位業圖) written by Tao Hongjing’s (陶弘景), Pan Gu is in the first place above all immortals dwells in the Yuqing jing (玉清境), the Jade clarity. It was also said that Pan-Gu’s is buried around the Southern China Sea(南海).
The temple dedicated to Pan-Gu could be dated back to ancient and founded in Sichun(四川). However, the temple is rare. In Taiwan, there are about five temples dedicated to Pan Gu, including Kaitian temple (開天宮) in Xindian (新店), Xinzhu (新竹) separately, and Dawang gong (大王宮), Pangu temple (盤古殿), Pangu wang miao (盤古王) in Tainan (台南) etc.
 
 
Keywords:
Yuanshi tianzun, Pan Gu gong
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