:::
全國宗教資訊網
 宗教知識+
宗教知識家
地藏王菩薩(Ksitigarbha bodishava)
::: 地藏王菩薩(Ksitigarbha bodishava)
* 首頁 > 宗教知識+ > 宗教神祇 > 地藏王菩薩(Ksitigarbha bodishava)
*
0分
分享圖示
分享
勘誤圖示
勘誤

新北市汐止區忠順地藏王菩薩(陳美華攝)

地藏王菩薩又作地藏菩薩,本是佛教裡的人物,梵語稱「乞文底蘗婆」(Ksitigarbha),此詞在梵文的意思裡,Ksiti本是「堪」或「住」,引伸為地,garbha有含藏的意思,兩字相合為「地藏」,也就是含藏於地裡,或是地中的寶藏,或是胎、子宮等意思。在日本,因為地藏的胎、子宮之意,地藏成為婦女、孩童的保護神,護佑婦女生產平安,孩童成長順利等。在中國,地藏本是王子,後出家修道,發願解救沉淪地獄的眾生,成為菩薩,地藏在中國和文殊、普賢、觀音合稱四大菩薩,也是印度佛教中國化的代表人物之一,地藏菩薩在中國的聖地是安徽的九華山道場,臺灣則以新北市之地藏庵知名。與地藏菩薩相關的佛教經典有《大乘大集地藏十輪經》、《地藏菩薩本願經》、《占察善惡業報經》(占察經)、《佛說地藏菩薩陀羅尼經》等。因為地藏王菩薩的心願是拯救地眾受苦的人,又稱「幽冥教主」或「酆都大帝」,視為地獄的主宰。
根據《地藏菩薩本願經》的記載,地藏菩薩前世是位名叫光目的女子,因為她的母親生前不相信因果,做了許多惡事,光目的母親過世後,她非常擔心母親將會墮入地獄受苦,即請求一位佛教聖者為她以神通力觀察母親的去處。結果不出所料,光目的母親墮入地獄受苦,於是光目接受聖者的建議,在家陳設佛像虔誠拜,將母親從地獄中救度出來,轉生善處。後來光目更立下心願,要將一切眾生從地獄中救出。最後光目轉世成為地藏菩薩,其心願是「地獄不空,誓不成佛」。將傳統的孝道和地藏信仰結合是《本願經》內容的發展主軸。
此外,地藏信仰初傳中國與《占察經》的流佈有密切關係。儘管地藏菩薩可能源於印度,但是在印度乃至中亞皆未發展成重要的信仰對象。按照經典的發展推估,地藏信仰至少在六世紀中葉前已經傳入中國。受《占察經》結合民間占卜和佛教修行方法的影響,地藏信仰開始在中國普及,《占察經》的修行方法是先以十個木輪占卜自身因果業報,然後根據占卜的結果決定其宗教實踐,包括懺悔、受戒等等。《占察經》結合占相和宗教實踐的方式在中國大受歡迎,也使得地藏菩薩信仰在中國大為流行。到了明,經智旭的提倡和譯注,《占察經》曾再蔚為風潮。
        九華山地藏道場是中國四大道場最晚形成者。九華山位於安徽,唐開元年間有位新羅僧人名金地藏來到九華山苦行,因為他的苦行據說有神奇的泉山湧出,長出神奇的穀物、五釵松等等,種種奇蹟感召許多人上山追隨他,九華山道場於是成型。其後九華山乃成為中國佛教四大道場之一,名地藏道場,僧人金地藏與地藏信仰緊密結合的傳說亦廣為流傳,金地藏乃成為地藏菩薩的轉世。
地藏菩薩流通民間的造像大致有兩種,兩者的差別在頭部的帽飾,一種是出家像,不戴帽而顯現其剃髮的樣貌;另一種是在家像,戴有菩薩的法帽,共同特徵為右手執杖,左手持光明珠,有時座下會有一隻名叫「善聽」的白狗,善聽經常也畫作地藏菩薩的座騎。
以上地藏信仰的面向係從佛教本位加以理解,實則地藏菩薩亦與道教和民間宗教交融形成不同的流行,此為臺灣地藏信仰的重要層面,地藏菩薩由於發願度盡地獄眾生,因此與之有關的民間諸神為閻王、東嶽大帝、城隍等陰司諸神,一說地藏菩薩即是閰王,在儀式體系中,地藏菩薩和祭厲活動有密切關係,職能為平撫凶死亡靈,因此經常與祭無名、早年械鬥亡靈的大眾爺結合。是以有關喪事、超度等活動,經常也供奉地藏菩薩,在墓園或靈骨處也陳設有其塑像或畫像以安靈,超度死者。地藏王菩薩誕辰為農曆 7 月 30 日。
佛教寺院裡普遍供有地藏王菩薩外,有佛教寺院則以地藏菩薩為主祀,或強調地藏法會、超度等儀式活動,如花蓮祥德寺。又民間亦有以地藏菩薩為主祀者,包括新莊地藏庵、艋舺地藏庵、嘉義北嶽殿地藏庵等等。新莊地藏庵以舉行改運或祭解儀式知名,並於農曆5月初一大眾爺生日時舉行繞境,是民間宗教與佛教結合的宇典型之一。
 
關鍵詞:
地藏菩薩、地獄、地藏菩薩本願經、九華山、地藏庵
 
考資料
 
  1. 林富士。1995 。《孤魂與鬼雄的世界:北臺灣的厲鬼信仰》。臺北:臺北縣立文化出版。
  2. 康豹。1998。〈新莊地藏庵的大眾爺崇拜〉。《人文學報》,16:123-159。
  3. 莊明興。1999。《中國中古的地藏信仰》。台北:臺灣大學出版委員會。
  4. 辜神徹。2005。〈臺灣北部大眾爺信仰新議:以新莊大眾為主之研究〉。《臺灣史料研究》,26:2-31。
  5. 陳錦霞。2008。〈地藏菩薩感應故事研究〉。嘉義:中正大學中文所碩士論文。

Ksitigarbha bodishava is a Buddhist figure. He is called Dicangwang bodishava(地藏王菩薩) in Chinese Buddhism. In China, Ksitigarbha was a prince at first. Then he became a monk and vowed to save the soul in the hell. Finally, because his great vow, he became a bodishava. There are four scared place of Buddhist bodishava in China. Ksitigarbha’s is one of them. His place is at Anhui(安徽), named Jiuhuashan(九華山). In Taiwan, one of the famous temple is Dicang An(地藏庵) in New Taipei City. The sutra related to Ksitigarbha in China are The Sutra of Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha's Fundamental Vows(地藏菩薩本願經), and the Sutra on the Divination of the Effect of Good and Evil Actions(占察善惡業報經) etc. Because of Ksitigarbha’s vow, he is also called the Lord of the Nether World(幽冥教主) or the Great Emperor of Fengdou(酆都大帝). He was seen as the lord of hell.
Regarding to the Sutra of Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha's Fundamental Vows, Ksitigarbha’ previous life was a girl named Guangmu(光目), bright eyes. Her mother did not believe karma when she was alive. She did many bad things. Guangmu was anxious about where her mother’s soul had gone after she was dead. She was worried about if her mother was down to the hell. A Buddhist monk helped her by his spiritual power. He found that her mother is indeed in the hell. The monk advised her praying to the statue of Buddha to save her mother from the hell. Finally, Guangmu’s effort worked. Her mother not only escaped from the hell but also went to the heaven. Then Guangmu made her mind to save all the soul in hell and she became male in next life. After she rebirth many times, she became he, Ksitigarbha bodishava. His vow is without empting hell, he would not become a Buddha. In conclusion, The Sutra of Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha's Fundamental Vow makes a strong connection between Buddhism and the piety filial of Confucianism.
Besides, the propagation of belief on Ksitigarbha is related to the Sutra on the Divination of the Effect of Good and Evil Actions. Although Ksitigarbha is origin from India, he did not become important figure in India Buddhism. Ksitigarbha could not become important in Chinese Buddhism without the helping of the Sutra on the Divination of the Effect of Good and Evil Actions. This sutra connected a popular divination and Buddhist practice. A Buddhist could make a divination to decide which Buddhist way one would practiced properly. As a result, this sutra was popular and Ksitigarbha was as well in Tang Dynasty. It was also the beginning of the belief on Ksitigarbha developing in China. Jiuhuashan is the concrete result.
The opening of Jiuhuashan was by the time when a Korean Buddhist monk named Jin Dicang (金地藏) came. Jin Dicang practiced meditation hard there. His marvel deed touched many people. People came to Jiuhuashan and followed him. It was said that there was also a spring ran out and miraculous plants grew. Finally, people thought that Jin Dicang was a rebirth of Ksitigarbha bodisha. Jiuhuashan is regarded as the sacred place of Ksitigarbha bodisha.
        Above description is base on the Buddhism. However, Ksitigarbha is also connected to Taoism and popular religion in China and Taiwan. This is an important aspect of belief on Ksitigarbha bodisha. The deities related to the nether world and death, such as Yan Wang(閻王, the ruler of hell), Dongyue Dadi(東嶽大帝) and Chenghuang(城隍), are closed connected with Ksitigarbha. Some people even thought that Ksitigarbha is the highest level of ten Yan Wang. In Taiwan, Ksitigarbha plays the role to pacify death killed in the battle among different Fujin intra-ethic migrants. Then the funeral and the ritual to are related to Ksitigarbha. Pacifying the death and watching over graveyard become Ksitigarbha’s main duty.
In Taiwan, Buddhist temples are dedicated to Ksitigarbha, though Ksitigarbha is not the main object. There are also some temples regarding Ksitigarbha as the main bodishava and dedicated to him, such as Xiangde temple(祥德寺)in Hualian(花蓮). There are also some temples belonging popular religion dedicated to Ksitigarbha, such as Dicang temple(地藏庵) in Xinzhuang(新莊), Manka(艋舺), and Jiayi(嘉義). The Dicang temple in Xinzhuang is famous of holding exorcistic ritual. By the first of May in Chinese lunar calendar, a great procession is made. It is a typical temple mixed with Buddhism and popular religion.
 
Keywords:
Dicangwang bodishava, Ksitigarbha bodisha, Dicang temple
 
考資料
  1. 林富士。1995 。《孤魂與鬼雄的世界:北臺灣的厲鬼信仰》。臺北:臺北縣立文化出版。
  2. 康豹。1998。〈新莊地藏庵的大眾爺崇拜〉。《人文學報》,16:123-159。
  3. 莊明興。1999。《中國中古的地藏信仰》。台北:臺灣大學出版委員會。
  4. 辜神徹。2005。〈臺灣北部大眾爺信仰新議:以新莊大眾為主之研究〉。《臺灣史料研究》,26:2-31。
  5. 陳錦霞。2008。〈地藏菩薩感應故事研究〉。嘉義:中正大學中文所碩士論文。
返回列表